Rattlesnake envenomation in 2 Visayan warty pigs

Eileen E. Henderson, Cynthia K. Stadler, Robert H. Poppenga, Javier Asin Ros, Francisco A. Uzal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Rattlesnake envenomation is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals in the southwestern United States and elsewhere. Two Visayan warty pigs (Sus cebifrons) from a regional zoo were submitted for autopsy after being found dead close to a southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus helleri) in their enclosure. Both pigs had severe regionally extensive cutaneous, subcutaneous, and muscle hemorrhage and edema with myonecrosis. Additionally, both pigs had lesions consistent with puncture wounds within the oral cavity, and one pig had a similar wound on a forelimb. The history, and gross and histologic findings, were consistent with envenomation by rattlesnake bite. There are few documented cases of snakebite envenomation in pigs, and it had been suggested that pigs may have some degree of resistance to envenomation. Our results indicate that warty pigs are susceptible to the action of rattlesnake venom.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Crotalus helleri
  • envenomation
  • pigs
  • rattlesnakes
  • Sus cebifrons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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