Rapid dissemination of SIV following oral inoculation

Jeffrey M. Milush, David Kosub, Marta Marthas, Kimberli Schmidt, Frederick Scott, Aneta Wozniakowski, Charles Brown, Susan Westmoreland, Donald L. Sodora

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To assess the earliest events regarding transmission and dissemination of SIV following nontraumatic oral inoculation in macaques. Design: Juvenile and neonate rhesus macaques were orally inoculated with SIVmac251 and necropsied at 1, 2, 4, 7, or 14 days post-inoculation. Sites of transmission and the extent of viral spread were assessed by using molecular techniques and in situ hybridization to identify SIV nucleic acid in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. Results: This study demonstrates that 1 day post-exposure, SIV nucleic acid was detected in the alimentary canal only in tissues proximal to the stomach, including the oral and esophageal mucosa as well as the tonsils. Following infection, virus was observed to spread rapidly to regional and peripheral lymph nodes by 1 and 2 days post-inoculation (dpi). Hundreds of copies of SIV-DNA were detected 4 dpi, increasing to > 10 000 copies/1 × 106 cells by 7 dpi. Identification of SIV positive T cells and macrophages implicates these cell types in viral spread, although dissemination of free virus is also likely. Conclusions: Here the oral and esophageal mucosa, as well as tonsils, are demonstrated to be potential sites for viral infection upon nontraumatic oral exposure to SIV in macaques. The rapid dissemination following oral transmission observed in this study is reflective of SIV transmission across other mucosal surfaces. The rapidity with which SIV, and probably HIV, spreads throughout the lymphatics indicates a major obstacle for a vaccine amnestic immune response to eliminate infected cells prior to dissemination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2371-2380
Number of pages10
JournalAIDS
Volume18
Issue number18
StatePublished - Dec 3 2004

Fingerprint

Palatine Tonsil
Mouth Mucosa
Macaca
Nucleic Acids
Viruses
Lymphoid Tissue
Virus Diseases
Macaca mulatta
In Situ Hybridization
Stomach
Vaccines
Lymph Nodes
Macrophages
HIV
T-Lymphocytes
DNA
Infection
Esophageal Mucosa

Keywords

  • Acute SIV infection
  • HIV
  • Macaque
  • Oral transmission
  • SIV

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Milush, J. M., Kosub, D., Marthas, M., Schmidt, K., Scott, F., Wozniakowski, A., ... Sodora, D. L. (2004). Rapid dissemination of SIV following oral inoculation. AIDS, 18(18), 2371-2380.

Rapid dissemination of SIV following oral inoculation. / Milush, Jeffrey M.; Kosub, David; Marthas, Marta; Schmidt, Kimberli; Scott, Frederick; Wozniakowski, Aneta; Brown, Charles; Westmoreland, Susan; Sodora, Donald L.

In: AIDS, Vol. 18, No. 18, 03.12.2004, p. 2371-2380.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Milush, JM, Kosub, D, Marthas, M, Schmidt, K, Scott, F, Wozniakowski, A, Brown, C, Westmoreland, S & Sodora, DL 2004, 'Rapid dissemination of SIV following oral inoculation', AIDS, vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 2371-2380.
Milush JM, Kosub D, Marthas M, Schmidt K, Scott F, Wozniakowski A et al. Rapid dissemination of SIV following oral inoculation. AIDS. 2004 Dec 3;18(18):2371-2380.
Milush, Jeffrey M. ; Kosub, David ; Marthas, Marta ; Schmidt, Kimberli ; Scott, Frederick ; Wozniakowski, Aneta ; Brown, Charles ; Westmoreland, Susan ; Sodora, Donald L. / Rapid dissemination of SIV following oral inoculation. In: AIDS. 2004 ; Vol. 18, No. 18. pp. 2371-2380.
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