Radiosurgery involves the use of radiation to treat tumors and is often an alternative to surgery. Many of the same advances in technology that have enabled the development of image-guided interventions have been applied in radiosurgery as well. In particular, the development of high resolution tomographic imaging for identification of the target treatment volume, as well as new methods for precisely delivering the radiation beam, have enabled more exact treatments. This chapter begins with a definition of radiosurgery and a brief historical review, followed by a description of the Gamma Knife® system for noninvasive treatment of intracranial brain disorders. The chapter describes conventional LINAC-based radiosurgery systems, and the CyberKnife® system robotic radiosurgery system, which can account for respiratory motion in the thorax and abdomen. The chapter concludes with a look at future tracking technologies.
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