Race and financial strain are independent correlates of sleep in midlife women: The SWAN sleep study

Martica H. Hall, Karen A. Matthews, Howard M. Kravitz, Ellen B Gold, Daniel J. Buysse, Joyce T. Bromberger, Jane F. Owens, MaryFran Sowers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

159 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Study objectives: To examine racial differences in sleep in a large cohort of midlife women and to evaluate whether indices of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with racial differences in sleep. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Caucasian (n = 171), African American (n = 138) and Chinese women (n = 59). Interventions: None. Measurements: Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Polysomnographically assessed sleep duration, continuity, architecture, and NREM electroencephalograhic (EEG) power were calculated over multiple nights. Sleep disordered breathing and periodic leg movements were measured on a separate night. Linear regression analysis was used to model the independent and synergistic effects of race and SES on sleep after adjusting for other factors that impact sleep in midlife women. Indices of SES were self-reported educational attainment and financial strain. Results: Sleep was worse in African American women than Caucasian participants as measured by self-report, visual sleep stage scoring, and NREM EEG power. Slow wave sleep differences were also observed between Chinese and Caucasian participants. Racial differences persisted after adjustment for indices of SES. Although educational attainment was unrelated to sleep, financial strain was associated with decreased sleep quality and lower sleep efficiency. Financial strain-byrace interactions were not statistically significant, suggesting that financial strain has additive effects on sleep, independent of race. Conclusions: Independent relationships between race and financial strain with sleep were observed despite statistical adjustment for other factors that might account for these relationships. Results do not suggest that assessed indices of SES moderate the race-sleep relationship, perhaps due to too few women of low SES in the study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)73-82
Number of pages10
JournalSleep
Volume32
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2009

Fingerprint

Sleep
Social Class
African Americans
Sleep Stages
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Self Report
Linear Models
Leg
Cross-Sectional Studies
Regression Analysis

Keywords

  • Menopause
  • Midlife women
  • Power spectral analysis
  • PSQI
  • Race
  • SES
  • Sleep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology (medical)
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Hall, M. H., Matthews, K. A., Kravitz, H. M., Gold, E. B., Buysse, D. J., Bromberger, J. T., ... Sowers, M. (2009). Race and financial strain are independent correlates of sleep in midlife women: The SWAN sleep study. Sleep, 32(1), 73-82.

Race and financial strain are independent correlates of sleep in midlife women : The SWAN sleep study. / Hall, Martica H.; Matthews, Karen A.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Gold, Ellen B; Buysse, Daniel J.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Owens, Jane F.; Sowers, MaryFran.

In: Sleep, Vol. 32, No. 1, 01.01.2009, p. 73-82.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hall, MH, Matthews, KA, Kravitz, HM, Gold, EB, Buysse, DJ, Bromberger, JT, Owens, JF & Sowers, M 2009, 'Race and financial strain are independent correlates of sleep in midlife women: The SWAN sleep study', Sleep, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 73-82.
Hall MH, Matthews KA, Kravitz HM, Gold EB, Buysse DJ, Bromberger JT et al. Race and financial strain are independent correlates of sleep in midlife women: The SWAN sleep study. Sleep. 2009 Jan 1;32(1):73-82.
Hall, Martica H. ; Matthews, Karen A. ; Kravitz, Howard M. ; Gold, Ellen B ; Buysse, Daniel J. ; Bromberger, Joyce T. ; Owens, Jane F. ; Sowers, MaryFran. / Race and financial strain are independent correlates of sleep in midlife women : The SWAN sleep study. In: Sleep. 2009 ; Vol. 32, No. 1. pp. 73-82.
@article{82896b5c9ab445d89706584e58d68cd4,
title = "Race and financial strain are independent correlates of sleep in midlife women: The SWAN sleep study",
abstract = "Study objectives: To examine racial differences in sleep in a large cohort of midlife women and to evaluate whether indices of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with racial differences in sleep. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Caucasian (n = 171), African American (n = 138) and Chinese women (n = 59). Interventions: None. Measurements: Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Polysomnographically assessed sleep duration, continuity, architecture, and NREM electroencephalograhic (EEG) power were calculated over multiple nights. Sleep disordered breathing and periodic leg movements were measured on a separate night. Linear regression analysis was used to model the independent and synergistic effects of race and SES on sleep after adjusting for other factors that impact sleep in midlife women. Indices of SES were self-reported educational attainment and financial strain. Results: Sleep was worse in African American women than Caucasian participants as measured by self-report, visual sleep stage scoring, and NREM EEG power. Slow wave sleep differences were also observed between Chinese and Caucasian participants. Racial differences persisted after adjustment for indices of SES. Although educational attainment was unrelated to sleep, financial strain was associated with decreased sleep quality and lower sleep efficiency. Financial strain-byrace interactions were not statistically significant, suggesting that financial strain has additive effects on sleep, independent of race. Conclusions: Independent relationships between race and financial strain with sleep were observed despite statistical adjustment for other factors that might account for these relationships. Results do not suggest that assessed indices of SES moderate the race-sleep relationship, perhaps due to too few women of low SES in the study.",
keywords = "Menopause, Midlife women, Power spectral analysis, PSQI, Race, SES, Sleep",
author = "Hall, {Martica H.} and Matthews, {Karen A.} and Kravitz, {Howard M.} and Gold, {Ellen B} and Buysse, {Daniel J.} and Bromberger, {Joyce T.} and Owens, {Jane F.} and MaryFran Sowers",
year = "2009",
month = "1",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "32",
pages = "73--82",
journal = "Sleep",
issn = "0161-8105",
publisher = "American Academy of Sleep Medicine",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Race and financial strain are independent correlates of sleep in midlife women

T2 - The SWAN sleep study

AU - Hall, Martica H.

AU - Matthews, Karen A.

AU - Kravitz, Howard M.

AU - Gold, Ellen B

AU - Buysse, Daniel J.

AU - Bromberger, Joyce T.

AU - Owens, Jane F.

AU - Sowers, MaryFran

PY - 2009/1/1

Y1 - 2009/1/1

N2 - Study objectives: To examine racial differences in sleep in a large cohort of midlife women and to evaluate whether indices of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with racial differences in sleep. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Caucasian (n = 171), African American (n = 138) and Chinese women (n = 59). Interventions: None. Measurements: Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Polysomnographically assessed sleep duration, continuity, architecture, and NREM electroencephalograhic (EEG) power were calculated over multiple nights. Sleep disordered breathing and periodic leg movements were measured on a separate night. Linear regression analysis was used to model the independent and synergistic effects of race and SES on sleep after adjusting for other factors that impact sleep in midlife women. Indices of SES were self-reported educational attainment and financial strain. Results: Sleep was worse in African American women than Caucasian participants as measured by self-report, visual sleep stage scoring, and NREM EEG power. Slow wave sleep differences were also observed between Chinese and Caucasian participants. Racial differences persisted after adjustment for indices of SES. Although educational attainment was unrelated to sleep, financial strain was associated with decreased sleep quality and lower sleep efficiency. Financial strain-byrace interactions were not statistically significant, suggesting that financial strain has additive effects on sleep, independent of race. Conclusions: Independent relationships between race and financial strain with sleep were observed despite statistical adjustment for other factors that might account for these relationships. Results do not suggest that assessed indices of SES moderate the race-sleep relationship, perhaps due to too few women of low SES in the study.

AB - Study objectives: To examine racial differences in sleep in a large cohort of midlife women and to evaluate whether indices of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with racial differences in sleep. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Caucasian (n = 171), African American (n = 138) and Chinese women (n = 59). Interventions: None. Measurements: Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Polysomnographically assessed sleep duration, continuity, architecture, and NREM electroencephalograhic (EEG) power were calculated over multiple nights. Sleep disordered breathing and periodic leg movements were measured on a separate night. Linear regression analysis was used to model the independent and synergistic effects of race and SES on sleep after adjusting for other factors that impact sleep in midlife women. Indices of SES were self-reported educational attainment and financial strain. Results: Sleep was worse in African American women than Caucasian participants as measured by self-report, visual sleep stage scoring, and NREM EEG power. Slow wave sleep differences were also observed between Chinese and Caucasian participants. Racial differences persisted after adjustment for indices of SES. Although educational attainment was unrelated to sleep, financial strain was associated with decreased sleep quality and lower sleep efficiency. Financial strain-byrace interactions were not statistically significant, suggesting that financial strain has additive effects on sleep, independent of race. Conclusions: Independent relationships between race and financial strain with sleep were observed despite statistical adjustment for other factors that might account for these relationships. Results do not suggest that assessed indices of SES moderate the race-sleep relationship, perhaps due to too few women of low SES in the study.

KW - Menopause

KW - Midlife women

KW - Power spectral analysis

KW - PSQI

KW - Race

KW - SES

KW - Sleep

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=61549084654&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=61549084654&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 19189781

AN - SCOPUS:61549084654

VL - 32

SP - 73

EP - 82

JO - Sleep

JF - Sleep

SN - 0161-8105

IS - 1

ER -