Rabies virus and canine distemper virus in wild and domestic carnivores in Northern Kenya: Are domestic dogs the reservoir?

K. C. Prager, Jonna A Mazet, Edward J. Dubovi, Laurence G. Frank, Linda Munson, Aaron P. Wagner, Rosie Woodroffe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Rabies virus (RV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) can cause significant mortality in wild carnivore populations, and RV threatens human lives. We investigated serological patterns of exposure to CDV and RV in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas), spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena) and African lions (Panthera leo), over a 10-year period, in a Kenyan rangeland to assess the role domestic dogs may play in the transmission dynamics of these two important canid pathogens. Observed patterns of RV exposure suggested that repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, occurred in the wild carnivore species studied. However, RV appeared to have been maintained in domestic dogs: exposure was more likely in domestic dogs than in the wild carnivores; was detected consistently over time without variation among years; and was detected in juveniles (≤1-year-old) as well as adults (>1-year-old). We conclude that this domestic dog population could be a RV reservoir. By contrast, the absence of evidence of CDV exposure for each carnivore species examined in the study area, for specific years, suggested repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, and that CDV may require a larger reservoir population than RV. This reservoir could be a larger domestic dog population; another wildlife species; or a "metareservoir" consisting of multiple interconnected carnivore populations. Our findings suggest that RV risks to people and wild carnivores might be controlled by domestic dog vaccination, but that CDV control, if required, would need to target the species of concern.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)483-498
Number of pages16
JournalEcoHealth
Volume9
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2012

Fingerprint

Canine Distemper Virus
rabies
Rabies virus
Kenya
carnivore
virus
Hyaenidae
Dogs
Lions
Population
Jackals
Maintenance
dog
canid
Vaccination
vaccination
rangeland

Keywords

  • canine distemper virus
  • disease dynamics
  • domestic dog
  • pathogen reservoir
  • rabies virus
  • wild African carnivore

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Rabies virus and canine distemper virus in wild and domestic carnivores in Northern Kenya : Are domestic dogs the reservoir? / Prager, K. C.; Mazet, Jonna A; Dubovi, Edward J.; Frank, Laurence G.; Munson, Linda; Wagner, Aaron P.; Woodroffe, Rosie.

In: EcoHealth, Vol. 9, No. 4, 12.2012, p. 483-498.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prager, K. C. ; Mazet, Jonna A ; Dubovi, Edward J. ; Frank, Laurence G. ; Munson, Linda ; Wagner, Aaron P. ; Woodroffe, Rosie. / Rabies virus and canine distemper virus in wild and domestic carnivores in Northern Kenya : Are domestic dogs the reservoir?. In: EcoHealth. 2012 ; Vol. 9, No. 4. pp. 483-498.
@article{d328a1f3eb224ab99a218f34cb011919,
title = "Rabies virus and canine distemper virus in wild and domestic carnivores in Northern Kenya: Are domestic dogs the reservoir?",
abstract = "Rabies virus (RV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) can cause significant mortality in wild carnivore populations, and RV threatens human lives. We investigated serological patterns of exposure to CDV and RV in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas), spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena) and African lions (Panthera leo), over a 10-year period, in a Kenyan rangeland to assess the role domestic dogs may play in the transmission dynamics of these two important canid pathogens. Observed patterns of RV exposure suggested that repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, occurred in the wild carnivore species studied. However, RV appeared to have been maintained in domestic dogs: exposure was more likely in domestic dogs than in the wild carnivores; was detected consistently over time without variation among years; and was detected in juveniles (≤1-year-old) as well as adults (>1-year-old). We conclude that this domestic dog population could be a RV reservoir. By contrast, the absence of evidence of CDV exposure for each carnivore species examined in the study area, for specific years, suggested repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, and that CDV may require a larger reservoir population than RV. This reservoir could be a larger domestic dog population; another wildlife species; or a {"}metareservoir{"} consisting of multiple interconnected carnivore populations. Our findings suggest that RV risks to people and wild carnivores might be controlled by domestic dog vaccination, but that CDV control, if required, would need to target the species of concern.",
keywords = "canine distemper virus, disease dynamics, domestic dog, pathogen reservoir, rabies virus, wild African carnivore",
author = "Prager, {K. C.} and Mazet, {Jonna A} and Dubovi, {Edward J.} and Frank, {Laurence G.} and Linda Munson and Wagner, {Aaron P.} and Rosie Woodroffe",
year = "2012",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1007/s10393-013-0815-9",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "9",
pages = "483--498",
journal = "EcoHealth",
issn = "1612-9202",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Rabies virus and canine distemper virus in wild and domestic carnivores in Northern Kenya

T2 - Are domestic dogs the reservoir?

AU - Prager, K. C.

AU - Mazet, Jonna A

AU - Dubovi, Edward J.

AU - Frank, Laurence G.

AU - Munson, Linda

AU - Wagner, Aaron P.

AU - Woodroffe, Rosie

PY - 2012/12

Y1 - 2012/12

N2 - Rabies virus (RV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) can cause significant mortality in wild carnivore populations, and RV threatens human lives. We investigated serological patterns of exposure to CDV and RV in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas), spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena) and African lions (Panthera leo), over a 10-year period, in a Kenyan rangeland to assess the role domestic dogs may play in the transmission dynamics of these two important canid pathogens. Observed patterns of RV exposure suggested that repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, occurred in the wild carnivore species studied. However, RV appeared to have been maintained in domestic dogs: exposure was more likely in domestic dogs than in the wild carnivores; was detected consistently over time without variation among years; and was detected in juveniles (≤1-year-old) as well as adults (>1-year-old). We conclude that this domestic dog population could be a RV reservoir. By contrast, the absence of evidence of CDV exposure for each carnivore species examined in the study area, for specific years, suggested repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, and that CDV may require a larger reservoir population than RV. This reservoir could be a larger domestic dog population; another wildlife species; or a "metareservoir" consisting of multiple interconnected carnivore populations. Our findings suggest that RV risks to people and wild carnivores might be controlled by domestic dog vaccination, but that CDV control, if required, would need to target the species of concern.

AB - Rabies virus (RV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) can cause significant mortality in wild carnivore populations, and RV threatens human lives. We investigated serological patterns of exposure to CDV and RV in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas), spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena) and African lions (Panthera leo), over a 10-year period, in a Kenyan rangeland to assess the role domestic dogs may play in the transmission dynamics of these two important canid pathogens. Observed patterns of RV exposure suggested that repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, occurred in the wild carnivore species studied. However, RV appeared to have been maintained in domestic dogs: exposure was more likely in domestic dogs than in the wild carnivores; was detected consistently over time without variation among years; and was detected in juveniles (≤1-year-old) as well as adults (>1-year-old). We conclude that this domestic dog population could be a RV reservoir. By contrast, the absence of evidence of CDV exposure for each carnivore species examined in the study area, for specific years, suggested repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, and that CDV may require a larger reservoir population than RV. This reservoir could be a larger domestic dog population; another wildlife species; or a "metareservoir" consisting of multiple interconnected carnivore populations. Our findings suggest that RV risks to people and wild carnivores might be controlled by domestic dog vaccination, but that CDV control, if required, would need to target the species of concern.

KW - canine distemper virus

KW - disease dynamics

KW - domestic dog

KW - pathogen reservoir

KW - rabies virus

KW - wild African carnivore

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84877791821&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84877791821&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s10393-013-0815-9

DO - 10.1007/s10393-013-0815-9

M3 - Article

C2 - 23459924

AN - SCOPUS:84877791821

VL - 9

SP - 483

EP - 498

JO - EcoHealth

JF - EcoHealth

SN - 1612-9202

IS - 4

ER -