Rabbit and nonhuman primate models of toxin-targeting human anthrax vaccines

Andrew J. Phipps, Christopher Premanandan, Roy E. Barnewall, Michael Dale Lairmore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations


The intentional use of Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, as a bioterrorist weapon in late 2001 made our society acutely aware of the importance of developing, testing, and stockpiling adequate countermeasures against biological attacks. Biodefense vaccines are an important component of our arsenal to be used during a biological attack. However, most of the agents considered significant threats either have been eradicated or rarely infect humans alive today. As such, vaccine efficacy cannot be determined in human clinical trials but must be extrapolated from experimental animal models. This article reviews the efficacy and immunogenicity of human anthrax vaccines in well-defined animal models and the progress toward developing a rugged immunologic correlate of protection. The ongoing evaluation of human anthrax vaccines will be dependent on animal efficacy data in the absence of human efficacy data for licensure by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)617-629
Number of pages13
JournalMicrobiology and Molecular Biology Reviews
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Microbiology
  • Genetics


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