Quantitative impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on tuberculosis dynamics

Kathryn DeRiemer, L. Masae Kawamura, Philip C. Hopewell, Charles L. Daley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Rationale: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has a major but unquantified impact on the risk of tuberculosis. Objectives: To quantify the impact of HIV infection on the number of tuberculosis cases in San Francisco. Methods: We studied all patients reported with tuberculosis in San Francisco from 1991 to 2002. The initial isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were genotyped using IS6110 restriction fragment-length polymorphism genotyping as the primary method, and clustered cases (identical genotype patterns) were identified. Measurements and Main Results: We determined the case number, case rate, and the fraction of tuberculosis attributable to HIV infection. Of 2,991 reported tuberculosis cases, 2,193 (73.3%) had a genotype pattern of M. tuberculosis available. Genotypic clusters with at least one HIV-positive person were larger, lasted longer, and had a shorter time between successive cases relative to clusters with only HIV-uninfected persons (P < 0.00005, P = 0.0009, P = 0.018, respectively). Overall, 13.7% of the tuberculosis cases were attributable to HIV infection and an estimated 405 excess tuberculosis cases occurred. Conclusions: During a period encompassing the resurgence and decline of tuberculosis in San Francisco, a substantial number of the tuberculosis cases were attributable to HIV infection. Coinfection with HIV amplified the local tuberculosis epidemic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)936-944
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Issue number9
StatePublished - Nov 1 2007


  • Genotyping
  • HIV infection
  • Transmission
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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