Background: Plasma-derived (pd) or recombinant (r) therapeutic factor VIII proteins (FVIIIs) are infused to arrest/prevent bleeding in patients with hemophilia A (PWHA). However, FVIIIs are neutralized if anti-FVIII-antibodies (inhibitors) develop. Accumulating evidence suggests that pdFVIIIs with von Willebrand factor (VWF) are less immunogenic than rFVIIIs and that distinct rFVIIIs are differentially immunogenic. Since inhibitor development is T-helper-cell-dependent, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-class-II (HLAcII) molecules constitute an important early determinant. Objectives: Use dendritic cell (DC)-protein processing/presentation assays with mass-spectrometric and peptide-proteomic analyses to quantify the DP-bound, DQ-bound, and DR-bound FVIII-derived peptides in individual HLAcII repertoires and compare the immunogenic potential of six distinct FVIIIs based on their measured peptide counts. Patients/Methods: Monocyte-derived DCs from normal donors and/or PWHA were cultured with either: Mix-rFVIII, a VWF-free equimolar mixture of a full-length (FL)-rFVIII [Advate® (Takeda)] and four distinct B-domain-deleted (BDD)-rFVIIIs [Xyntha® (Pfizer), NovoEight® (Novo-Nordisk), Nuwiq® (Octapharma), and Afstyla® (CSL Behring GmBH)]; a pdFVIII + pdVWF [Beriate® (CSL Behring GmBH)]; Advate ± pdVWF; Afstyla ± pdVWF; and Xyntha + pdVWF. Results: We showed that (i) Beriate had a significantly lower immunogenic potential than Advate ± pdVWF, Afstyla − pdVWF, and Mix-rFVIII; (ii) distinct FVIIIs differed significantly in their immunogenic potential in that, in addition to (i), Afstyla + pdVWF had a significantly lower immunogenic potential than Beriate, while the immunogenic potential of Beriate was not significantly different from that of Xyntha + pdVWF; and (iii) rFVIIIs with pdVWF had significantly lower immunogenic potentials than the same rFVIIIs without pdVWF. Conclusions: Our results provide HLAcII peptidomic level explanations for several important clinical observations/issues including the differential immunogenicity of distinct FVIIIs and the role of HLAcII genetics in inhibitor development.
- blood coagulation factor inhibitors
- factor VIII
- hemophilia A
- histocompatibility antigens class II
- quantitative peptidomics
- sequence analysis
ASJC Scopus subject areas