We developed and validated a liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analytical method for quantitatively measuring pesticide concentrations in small-body avian tissue samples using homogenized 1–2-d-old chicken carcasses as the test matrix. We quantified the following key insecticides: sulfoxaflor (sulfoximine class) and the neonicotinoids dinotefuran, nitenpyram, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, clothianidin, and imidacloprid. We used fortified chick carcass samples to validate method accuracy (80–125% recoveries), precision (<20% relative standard deviation), and sensitivity (≤1.2 ppb) for these targeted analytes. This method also uses full-scan, high-resolution MS to screen for the presence of a wide variety of other xenobiotics in bird carcasses. The utility of our screening process was demonstrated by the detection of carbaryl in some samples. This sensitive LC-HRMS analytical method for insecticide detection in a matrix of homogenized carcass is ideal for evaluating small birds for insecticide exposure. This novel whole-carcass method may allow for research studies of small-bodied, free-ranging avian species, and could provide insight regarding their exposure to multiple classes of environmental contaminants.
- Electrospray mass spectrometry
- pesticide residues
- small-bodied birds
ASJC Scopus subject areas