Study objective: To quantify the delivered tidal volume andother selected measurements of pulmonary mechanics in an animal model during transtracheal jet ventilation (TTJV), with comparison to positive-pressure mechanical ventilation (PPMV) and spontaneous breathing. Design: Prospective, nonblinded laboratory animal study. Interventions: Seven mongrel dogs weighing 24.5±3.7 kg were anesthetized, paralyzed, and placed within a specially designed volume plethysmograph with the head and neck externalized. Ventilation was performed using TTJV under variable inspiratory time:expiratory time ratios (T1:TE) (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 1.5:2.5, 2:1, 2:2, 3:1, and 4:1) and variable driving air pressures (40, 45, and 50 psi). The dogs then were ventilated with PPMV. Tidal volume, tracheal pressure, transpulmonary pressure, air flow, arterial pressure, central venous pressure, and arterial blood gases were measured during spontaneous ventilation, TTJV, and PPMV. Quasistatic compliance of the lungs was measured after all methods of ventilation. Statistical significance was accepted at P<.05. Results: There was no significant difference between delivered tidal volume during TTJV (446±69 mL at a T1:TE of 1:3 and 45 psi) and spontaneous breathing (506±72 mL). TTJV delivered a tidal volume significantly higher than the standard 15 mL/kg volume used for mechanical ventilation in dogs. Tracheal pressure and transpulmonary pressure were not significantly different between TTJV and PPMV. Variations in T1:TE had no significant effect on most of the measured variables, specifically tidal volume or transpulmonary pressure. Minute ventilation increased significantly and Pco2 decreased significantly as frequency increased during T1:TE settings of 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1. Increases in the driving air pressure during TTJV significantly increased the tidal volume as it was raised from 40 psi to 50 psi. These was no change in quasistatic lung compliance during any method of ventilation. Conclusion: TTJV delivers an effective tidal volume comparable to both spontaneous breathing and PPMV in a dog model. In the absence of upper-airway obstruction, there was no significant difference in the pulmonary pressures, resistance, and compliance during TTJV, as compared to mechanical ventilation. Variation in T1:TE during TTJV had no major effect on pulmonary mechanics, except to increase minute ventilation and decrease Pco2 as the frequency was increased significantly. Increasing the driving air pressure to the TTJV apparatus significantly augmented delivered tidal volume due to increased air flow.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Emergency Medicine