During experiments designed to develop an appropriate ventilatory strategy for high-frequency ventilation (HFV) in the premature baboon with hyaline membrane disease (HMD), we observed the development of pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE). Four study groups of 5 animals each received positive-pressure ventilation and positive end-expiratory pressure (PPV/PEEP) or HFV and 1 of 3 sighing techniques. Pathologically, all animals ventilated with PPV/PEEP or HFV with a carefully controlled intermittent sigh developed dilatation of the distal conduction airway and alveolar duct, with poorly expanded pulmonary saccules. The imposition of a sigh with inappropriate timing or excessive volume ruptured the dilated airway walls and caused interstitial air to accumulate. This was evident from the location of striking dilation of the distal airways and pseudocysts in areas of atelectasis. Thus, early in the course of HMD when saccular aeration is minimal, the pathogenesis of PIE is related to airway rather than alveolar rupture.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine