Pulmonary arteriopathy and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension in six dogs

T. S. Zabka, F. E. Campbell, Dennis W Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pulmonary arteriopathy (PA) is the pathologic hallmark in human medicine of diffuse constrictive (medial and intimal remodeling) or multifocal complex (plexiform and dilatative lesions) arterial lesions, or both, that lead to irreversible obliteration of the arterial lumen. Clinically, PA leads to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), of which idiopathic (IPAH) is one of the 5 subsets, and ultimately, to right-sided heart failure (RHF). Clinical and pathologic findings from 6 dogs with diagnosis of IPAH and PA were reviewed. These dogs were of various pure (5/6, 83%) and mixed (1/6, 17%) breeding, 5 months to 9 years (mean 5.2 years) old, and predominantly female (4/6, 67%) and reproductively intact (4/6, 67%). Doppler echocardiography (n 5 5) indicated increased pulmonary arterial pressures during systole (70-135 mm Hg, mean 98 mm Hg) and diastole (35-80 mm Hg, mean 58 mm Hg). All 6 dogs had right ventricular pressure overload, right ventricular eccentric hypertrophy, and RHF. Histologic examination confirmed the clinical diagnosis of IPAH in all dogs, revealing PA characterized by 1 of the 4 main human histologic subsets: 1) isolated medial hypertrophy (1/6, 17%); 2) medial hypertrophy-intimal thickening without the plexiform lesion (1/6, 17%); 3) medial hypertrophy-intimal thickening concurrent with the plexiform lesion, which often was regionally clustered and situated near branching points of the respiratory artery, the poststenotic dilatation lesion, and vasculitis (4/6, 66%); and 4) isolated arteritis (1/6, 17%). Ancillary lesions similar to those in humans also complicated the PA (5/6, 83%). The complex lesions and ancillary exudative alveolitis seemed to be important indicators of severe, likely rapidly progressive and fatal, IPAH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)510-522
Number of pages13
JournalVeterinary Pathology
Volume43
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2006

Fingerprint

lesions (animal)
hypertension
lungs
Dogs
Tunica Intima
Lung
dogs
hypertrophy
Hypertrophy
heart failure
Heart Failure
Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
alveolitis
Arteritis
Diastole
arteritis
Doppler Echocardiography
Systole
vasculitis
Ventricular Pressure

Keywords

  • Dog
  • Echocardiography
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Lung
  • Pathology
  • Plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy
  • Primary pulmonary hypertension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Pulmonary arteriopathy and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension in six dogs. / Zabka, T. S.; Campbell, F. E.; Wilson, Dennis W.

In: Veterinary Pathology, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2006, p. 510-522.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Pulmonary arteriopathy (PA) is the pathologic hallmark in human medicine of diffuse constrictive (medial and intimal remodeling) or multifocal complex (plexiform and dilatative lesions) arterial lesions, or both, that lead to irreversible obliteration of the arterial lumen. Clinically, PA leads to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), of which idiopathic (IPAH) is one of the 5 subsets, and ultimately, to right-sided heart failure (RHF). Clinical and pathologic findings from 6 dogs with diagnosis of IPAH and PA were reviewed. These dogs were of various pure (5/6, 83{\%}) and mixed (1/6, 17{\%}) breeding, 5 months to 9 years (mean 5.2 years) old, and predominantly female (4/6, 67{\%}) and reproductively intact (4/6, 67{\%}). Doppler echocardiography (n 5 5) indicated increased pulmonary arterial pressures during systole (70-135 mm Hg, mean 98 mm Hg) and diastole (35-80 mm Hg, mean 58 mm Hg). All 6 dogs had right ventricular pressure overload, right ventricular eccentric hypertrophy, and RHF. Histologic examination confirmed the clinical diagnosis of IPAH in all dogs, revealing PA characterized by 1 of the 4 main human histologic subsets: 1) isolated medial hypertrophy (1/6, 17{\%}); 2) medial hypertrophy-intimal thickening without the plexiform lesion (1/6, 17{\%}); 3) medial hypertrophy-intimal thickening concurrent with the plexiform lesion, which often was regionally clustered and situated near branching points of the respiratory artery, the poststenotic dilatation lesion, and vasculitis (4/6, 66{\%}); and 4) isolated arteritis (1/6, 17{\%}). Ancillary lesions similar to those in humans also complicated the PA (5/6, 83{\%}). The complex lesions and ancillary exudative alveolitis seemed to be important indicators of severe, likely rapidly progressive and fatal, IPAH.",
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