Pulmonary arteriopathy (PA) is the pathologic hallmark in human medicine of diffuse constrictive (medial and intimal remodeling) or multifocal complex (plexiform and dilatative lesions) arterial lesions, or both, that lead to irreversible obliteration of the arterial lumen. Clinically, PA leads to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), of which idiopathic (IPAH) is one of the 5 subsets, and ultimately, to right-sided heart failure (RHF). Clinical and pathologic findings from 6 dogs with diagnosis of IPAH and PA were reviewed. These dogs were of various pure (5/6, 83%) and mixed (1/6, 17%) breeding, 5 months to 9 years (mean 5.2 years) old, and predominantly female (4/6, 67%) and reproductively intact (4/6, 67%). Doppler echocardiography (n 5 5) indicated increased pulmonary arterial pressures during systole (70-135 mm Hg, mean 98 mm Hg) and diastole (35-80 mm Hg, mean 58 mm Hg). All 6 dogs had right ventricular pressure overload, right ventricular eccentric hypertrophy, and RHF. Histologic examination confirmed the clinical diagnosis of IPAH in all dogs, revealing PA characterized by 1 of the 4 main human histologic subsets: 1) isolated medial hypertrophy (1/6, 17%); 2) medial hypertrophy-intimal thickening without the plexiform lesion (1/6, 17%); 3) medial hypertrophy-intimal thickening concurrent with the plexiform lesion, which often was regionally clustered and situated near branching points of the respiratory artery, the poststenotic dilatation lesion, and vasculitis (4/6, 66%); and 4) isolated arteritis (1/6, 17%). Ancillary lesions similar to those in humans also complicated the PA (5/6, 83%). The complex lesions and ancillary exudative alveolitis seemed to be important indicators of severe, likely rapidly progressive and fatal, IPAH.
- Plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy
- Primary pulmonary hypertension
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