Studies on "hit-and-run" effects by viral proteins are difficult when using traditional affinity precipitation-based techniques under dynamic conditions, because only proteins interacting at a specific instance in time can be precipitated by affinity purification. Recent advances in proximity labeling (PL) have enabled identification of both static and dynamic protein-protein interactions. In this study, we applied a PL method by generating recombinant Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KSHV, a gammaherpesvirus, uniquely encodes four interferon regulatory factors (IRF-1 to -4) that suppress host interferon responses, and we examined KSHV IRF-1 and IRF-4 neighbor proteins to identify cellular proteins involved in innate immune regulation. PL identified 213 and 70 proteins as neighboring proteins of viral IRF-1 (vIRF-1) and vIRF-4 during viral reactivation, and 47 proteins were shared between the two vIRFs; the list also includes three viral proteins, ORF17, thymidine kinase, and vIRF-4. Functional annotation of respective interacting proteins showed highly overlapping biological roles such as mRNA processing and transcriptional regulation by TP53. Innate immune regulation by these commonly interacting 44 cellular proteins was examined with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and the splicing factor 3B family proteins were found to be associated with interferon transcription and to act as suppressors of KSHV reactivation. We propose that recombinant mini-TurboID-KSHV is a powerful tool to probe key cellular proteins that play a role in KSHV replication and that selective splicing factors have a function in the regulation of innate immune responses.IMPORTANCE Viral protein interaction with a host protein shows at least two sides: (i) taking host protein functions for its own benefit and (ii) disruption of existing host protein complex formation to inhibit undesirable host responses. Due to the use of affinity precipitation approaches, the majority of studies have focused on how the virus takes advantage of the newly formed protein interactions for its own replication. Proximity labeling (PL), however, can also highlight transient and negative effects-those interactions which lead to dissociation from the existing protein complex. Here, we highlight the power of PL in combination with recombinant KSHV to study viral host interactions.
- human herpesviruses
- Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
- proximity biotin ligation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science