Hyperlipidemia is common after renal transplantation (Tx) and contributes to the increased cardiovascular morbidity seen in the post-transplant period. Limited data are available on the utility of the statins in children after renal Tx. This 12-month prospective study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of pravastatin in reducing dyslipidemia after renal Tx in children and to determine predictors of dyslipidemia after Tx. From August 2001 to April 2004, all 17 newly transplanted pediatric renal transplant recipients at our center were preemptively treated with pravastatin from the immediate post-transplant period. Fasting lipid profiles were obtained at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after Tx. Trends in the lipid profile were analyzed using the repeated measures general linear model (GLM). A historical cohort of pediatric renal-transplant recipients not treated with pravastatin was used as the control population. The mixed effects GLM was used for multivariable logistic regression analyses to determine the independent effect of age, pretransplant cholesterol (Chol), body mass index (BMI), creatinine clearance (CrCl), and corticosteroid and tacrolimus doses on the development of dyslipidemia. The mean age of the children at Tx was 8.7 yr. The GLM analysis showed that with time, there was a significant decline in the total Chol, serum triglyceride (TG), LDL and also HDL-Chol (p-value < 0.05 for each). Compared with the controls, the mean serum Chol was lower at all time points post-transplant in the treated patients. However, despite treatment, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia increased from 31% pretransplant to 53% at 1-month, but declined thereafter to 6% at 3 and 6 months and 0% at 1 yr. Multivariable regression analyses showed the prednisone dose, pretransplant Chol and age to be the most important risk factors for the development of dyslipidemia. No child developed complications related to therapy. In summary, pravastatin is safe in the post-transplant period in children and reduces serum Chol, LDL-Chol and TG. An unexpected finding in our study was the decline in HDL-Chol after Tx. Whether the preemptive use of the statins will result in lower cardiovascular morbidity, especially considering the concomitant reduction in HDL-Chol remains to be determined.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health