Background:Ketoconazole is a well-known CYP17-targeted systemic treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, most of the published data has been in the pre-chemotherapy setting; its efficacy in the post-chemotherapy setting has not been as widely described. Chemotherapy-naïve patients treated with attenuated doses of ketoconazole (200–300 mg three times daily) had PSA response rate (>50% decline) of 21–62%. We hypothesized that low-dose ketoconazole would likewise possess efficacy and tolerability in the CRPC post-chemotherapy state.Methods:Men with CRPC and performance status 0–3, adequate organ function and who had received prior docetaxel were treated with low-dose ketoconazole (200 mg orally three times daily) and hydrocortisone (20 mg PO qAM and 10 mg PO qPM) until disease progression. Primary endpoint was PSA response rate (>50% reduction from baseline) where a rate of 25% was to be considered promising for further study (versus a null rate of <5%); 25 patients were required. Secondary endpoints included PSA response >30% from baseline, progression-free survival (PFS), duration of stable disease and evaluation of adverse events (AEs).Results:Thirty patients were accrued with median age of 72 years (range 55–86) and median pre-treatment PSA of 73 ng ml-1 (range 7–11,420). Twenty-nine patients were evaluable for response and toxicity. PSA response (>50% reduction) was seen in 48% of patients; PSA response (>30% reduction) was seen in 59%. Median PFS was 138 days; median duration of stable disease was 123 days. Twelve patients experienced grade 3 or 4 AEs. Of the 17 grade 3 AEs, only 3 were attributed to treatment. None of the two grade 4 AEs were considered related to treatment.Conclusions:In docetaxel pre-treated CRPC patients, low-dose ketoconazole and hydrocortisone is a well-tolerated, relatively inexpensive and clinically active treatment option. PSA response to low-dose ketoconazole appears historically comparable to that of abiraterone in this patient context. A prospective, randomized study of available post-chemotherapy options is warranted to assess comparative efficacy.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 10 February 2015; doi:10.1038/pcan.2015.2.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research