Prognostic variables at intake and long-term level of function in schizophrenia

Steven J. Siegel, Farzin Irani, Colleen M. Brensinger, Christian G. Kohler, Warren B. Bilker, John D Ragland, Stephen J. Kanes, Ruben C. Gur, Raquel E. Gur

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

100 Scopus citations


Objective: This study assessed the relationship between symptoms and cognitive measures at intake and functional outcome 2-8 years later (average 3 years) in first-episode and previously treated schizophrenia patients. Method: A composite cognitive score was assessed at intake to determine the influence of cognition on later functional outcome. At intake and follow-up, positive and negative symptoms were assessed with the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and affective symptoms were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Level of function in seven domains (social function, occupational function, independent living, symptom severity, fullness of life, extent of psychiatric hospitalization, and overall level of function) at intake and follow-up was assessed with the Strauss-Carpenter Level of Function scale. The contributions of sex, education, and duration of illness to functional outcome were also examined. Results: The results indicated that symptoms at intake had distinct patterns of prognostic significance for functional outcome in previously treated patients, compared with first-episode patients. In addition, male and female patients differed in the degree to which initial symptoms were correlated with later function. Conclusions: Initial level of function, symptoms, sex, education, and duration of illness are all important predictors for functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)433-441
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Psychiatry
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2006
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'Prognostic variables at intake and long-term level of function in schizophrenia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this