Background: Despite treatment, many dogs still die of complications related to canine parvoviral (CPV) enteritis. Effective prognostication would be beneficial in managing this disease. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that the occurrence of leukocytopenias at admission and at 24 and 48 hours after admission, and changes in absolute leukocyte counts over time, could be used to predict outcome. Animals: Sixty-two puppies with confirmed CPV. Methods: A prospective study was performed. CBC was performed daily until discharge or death (in which case a postmortem examination was performed). Results: Of the nonsurvivors (10/62; 16%), 9 died because of complications of the disease and 1 was euthanized because of a poor prognosis. There was a statistical significant difference in the occurrence of leukocytopenias between groups at 24 and 48 hours postadmission. The survivors showed a significant increase over time in certain leukocyte types (specifically lymphocytes) compared with values at admission. The positive predictive value for survivors was high. Nonsurvivors had marked thymic and lymphoid atrophy and marked bone marrow hypocellularity. Conclusion: An accurate prognosis could be obtained at 24 hours after admission by evaluating the change in total leukocyte, band neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts.
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