Profiling structured beams using injected aerosols

N. Duane Loh, Dmitri Starodub, Lukas Lomb, Christina Y. Hampton, Andrew V. Martin, Raymond G. Sierra, Anton Barty, Andrew Aquila, Joachim Schulz, Jan Steinbrener, Robert L. Shoeman, Stephan Kassemeyer, Christoph Bostedt, John Bozek, Sascha W. Epp, Benjamin Erk, Robert Hartmann, Daniel Rolles, Artem Rudenko, Benedikt RudekLutz Foucar, Nils Kimmel, Georg Weidenspointner, Guenter Hauser, Peter Holl, Emanuele Pedersoli, Mengning Liang, Mark S. Hunter, Lars Gumprecht, Nicola Coppola, Cornelia Wunderer, Heinz Graafsma, Filipe R.N.C. Maia, Tomas Ekeberg, Max Hantke, Holger Fleckenstein, Helmut Hirsemann, Karol Nass, Thomas A. White, Herbert J. Tobias, George R. Farquar, W. Henry Benner, Stefan Hau-Riege, Christian Reich, Andreas Hartmann, Heike Soltau, Stefano Marchesini, Sasa Bajt, Miriam Barthelmess, Lothar Strueder, Joachim Ullrich, Philip Bucksbaum, Keith O. Hodgson, Matthias Frank, Ilme Schlichting, Henry N. Chapman, Michael J. Bogan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


Profiling structured beams produced by X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) is crucial to both maximizing signal intensity for weakly scattering targets and interpreting their scattering patterns. Earlier ablative imprint studies describe how to infer the X-ray beam profile from the damage that an attenuated beam inflicts on a substrate. However, the beams in-situ profile is not directly accessible with imprint studies because the damage profile could be different from the actual beam profile. On the other hand, although a Shack-Hartmann sensor is capable of in-situ profiling, its lenses may be quickly damaged at the intense focus of hard X-ray FEL beams. We describe a new approach that probes the in-situ morphology of the intense FEL focus. By studying the translations in diffraction patterns from an ensemble of randomly injected sub-micron latex spheres, we were able to determine the non-Gaussian nature of the intense FEL beam at the Linac Coherent Light Source (SLAC National Laboratory) near the FEL focus. We discuss an experimental application of such a beam-profiling technique, and the limitations we need to overcome before it can be widely applied.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationX-Ray Free-Electron Lasers
Subtitle of host publicationBeam Diagnostics, Beamline Instrumentation, and Applications
StatePublished - Dec 1 2012
Externally publishedYes
EventX-Ray Free-Electron Lasers: Beam Diagnostics, Beamline Instrumentation, and Applications - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Aug 13 2012Aug 16 2012


OtherX-Ray Free-Electron Lasers: Beam Diagnostics, Beamline Instrumentation, and Applications
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA


  • Aerosols
  • Beam diagnostics
  • Beam profiling
  • Diffraction
  • Hartmann sensor
  • Imaging
  • LCLS
  • X-ray freeelectron laser

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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