Professionally- And self-trained service dogs: Benefits and challenges for partners with disabilities

Mariko Yamamoto, Lynette A Hart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


It has been widely reported that service dogs offer benefits to their human partners, however, it is unclear whether the expanding methods of training and roles of service dogs for their partners with various disabilities also provide similar benefits. This study aimed to investigate the self-reported experience of service dog partners to understand whether three different factors influence the benefits and drawbacks associated with partnering with a service dog: (1) different methods of training service dogs; (2) different severities of human partners' disabilities; (3) different roles of service dogs. Partners of service dogs were recruited to the web survey through service dog facilities and networking groups. Answers from 19 men and 147 women participants (91.8% living in the U.S.) were analyzed in this study. Participants experienced the expected benefits of service dogs, including increased independence, social relationships, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and decreased anxiety, stress, and loneliness. However, the perceived benefits, concerns, and burdens differed depending on the partners' disabilities and the training history of the dogs. When first living with their service dogs, people who had self-trained their service dogs experienced more burdens than those living with professionally trained service dogs. No major reduction in expenses for assistance after acquiring a dog was reported. Personalized team training based on each person's disabilities and situation is required to optimize the benefits and minimize the burdens and concerns of living with service dogs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number179
JournalFrontiers in Veterinary Science
Issue numberJUN
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Family members
  • Medical
  • Mobility
  • Professionally-trained
  • Psychiatric
  • Self-trained
  • Service dogs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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