Procyanidin dimer B2 [epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin] in human plasma after the consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa

Roberta R. Holt, Sheryl A. Lazarus, M. Cameron Sullards, Qin Yan Zhu, Derek D. Schramm, John F. Hammerstone, Cesar G. Fraga, Harold H. Schmitz, Carl L Keen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

437 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Epidemiologic studies have linked flavonoid-rich foods with a reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality. Some cocoas are flavonoid-rich and contain the monomeric flavanols (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and oligomeric procyanidins formed from these monomeric units. Both the monomers and the oligomers have shown potential in favorably influencing cardiovascular health in in vitro and preliminary clinical studies. Although previous investigations have shown increasing concentrations of (-)-epicatechin in human plasma after cocoa consumption, no information is available in the published literature regarding the presence of procyanidins in human plasma. Objective: This study sought to determine whether procyanidins can be detected and quantified in human plasma after acute consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa. Design: Peripheral blood was obtained from 5 healthy adult subjects before (baseline, 0 h) and 0.5, 2, and 6 h after consumption of 0.375 g cocoa/kg body wt as a beverage. Plasma samples were analyzed for monomers and procyanidins with the use of reversedphase HPLC with coulometric electrochemical array detection and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Procyanidin dimer, (-)-epicatechin, and (+)-catechin were detected in the plasma of human subjects as early as 0.5 h (16 ± 5 nmol/L, 2.61 ± 0.46 μmol/L, and 0.13 ± 0.03 μmol/L, respectively) after acute cocoa consumption and reached maximal concentrations by 2 h (41 ± 4 nmol/L, 5.92 ± 0.60 μmol/L, and 0.16 ± 0.03 μmol/L, respectively). Conclusion: Dimeric procyanidins can be detected in human plasma as early as 30 min after the consumption of a flavanol-rich food such as cocoa.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)798-804
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume76
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2002

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procyanidins
Catechin
epicatechin
Proanthocyanidins
flavanols
catechin
Flavonoids
flavonoids
Food
epidemiological studies
Beverages
beverages
liquid chromatography
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
clinical trials
Liquid Chromatography
high performance liquid chromatography
procyanidin B2
Epidemiologic Studies
Healthy Volunteers

Keywords

  • Catechin
  • Chocolate
  • Cocoa
  • Coulometric electrochemical array detection
  • Epicatechin
  • Flavonoid
  • Procyanidin
  • Reversed-phase HPLC

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

Cite this

Holt, R. R., Lazarus, S. A., Cameron Sullards, M., Zhu, Q. Y., Schramm, D. D., Hammerstone, J. F., ... Keen, C. L. (2002). Procyanidin dimer B2 [epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin] in human plasma after the consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76(4), 798-804.

Procyanidin dimer B2 [epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin] in human plasma after the consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa. / Holt, Roberta R.; Lazarus, Sheryl A.; Cameron Sullards, M.; Zhu, Qin Yan; Schramm, Derek D.; Hammerstone, John F.; Fraga, Cesar G.; Schmitz, Harold H.; Keen, Carl L.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 76, No. 4, 10.2002, p. 798-804.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Holt, RR, Lazarus, SA, Cameron Sullards, M, Zhu, QY, Schramm, DD, Hammerstone, JF, Fraga, CG, Schmitz, HH & Keen, CL 2002, 'Procyanidin dimer B2 [epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin] in human plasma after the consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 798-804.
Holt RR, Lazarus SA, Cameron Sullards M, Zhu QY, Schramm DD, Hammerstone JF et al. Procyanidin dimer B2 [epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin] in human plasma after the consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002 Oct;76(4):798-804.
Holt, Roberta R. ; Lazarus, Sheryl A. ; Cameron Sullards, M. ; Zhu, Qin Yan ; Schramm, Derek D. ; Hammerstone, John F. ; Fraga, Cesar G. ; Schmitz, Harold H. ; Keen, Carl L. / Procyanidin dimer B2 [epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin] in human plasma after the consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002 ; Vol. 76, No. 4. pp. 798-804.
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abstract = "Background: Epidemiologic studies have linked flavonoid-rich foods with a reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality. Some cocoas are flavonoid-rich and contain the monomeric flavanols (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and oligomeric procyanidins formed from these monomeric units. Both the monomers and the oligomers have shown potential in favorably influencing cardiovascular health in in vitro and preliminary clinical studies. Although previous investigations have shown increasing concentrations of (-)-epicatechin in human plasma after cocoa consumption, no information is available in the published literature regarding the presence of procyanidins in human plasma. Objective: This study sought to determine whether procyanidins can be detected and quantified in human plasma after acute consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa. Design: Peripheral blood was obtained from 5 healthy adult subjects before (baseline, 0 h) and 0.5, 2, and 6 h after consumption of 0.375 g cocoa/kg body wt as a beverage. Plasma samples were analyzed for monomers and procyanidins with the use of reversedphase HPLC with coulometric electrochemical array detection and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Procyanidin dimer, (-)-epicatechin, and (+)-catechin were detected in the plasma of human subjects as early as 0.5 h (16 ± 5 nmol/L, 2.61 ± 0.46 μmol/L, and 0.13 ± 0.03 μmol/L, respectively) after acute cocoa consumption and reached maximal concentrations by 2 h (41 ± 4 nmol/L, 5.92 ± 0.60 μmol/L, and 0.16 ± 0.03 μmol/L, respectively). Conclusion: Dimeric procyanidins can be detected in human plasma as early as 30 min after the consumption of a flavanol-rich food such as cocoa.",
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T1 - Procyanidin dimer B2 [epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin] in human plasma after the consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa

AU - Holt, Roberta R.

AU - Lazarus, Sheryl A.

AU - Cameron Sullards, M.

AU - Zhu, Qin Yan

AU - Schramm, Derek D.

AU - Hammerstone, John F.

AU - Fraga, Cesar G.

AU - Schmitz, Harold H.

AU - Keen, Carl L

PY - 2002/10

Y1 - 2002/10

N2 - Background: Epidemiologic studies have linked flavonoid-rich foods with a reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality. Some cocoas are flavonoid-rich and contain the monomeric flavanols (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and oligomeric procyanidins formed from these monomeric units. Both the monomers and the oligomers have shown potential in favorably influencing cardiovascular health in in vitro and preliminary clinical studies. Although previous investigations have shown increasing concentrations of (-)-epicatechin in human plasma after cocoa consumption, no information is available in the published literature regarding the presence of procyanidins in human plasma. Objective: This study sought to determine whether procyanidins can be detected and quantified in human plasma after acute consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa. Design: Peripheral blood was obtained from 5 healthy adult subjects before (baseline, 0 h) and 0.5, 2, and 6 h after consumption of 0.375 g cocoa/kg body wt as a beverage. Plasma samples were analyzed for monomers and procyanidins with the use of reversedphase HPLC with coulometric electrochemical array detection and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Procyanidin dimer, (-)-epicatechin, and (+)-catechin were detected in the plasma of human subjects as early as 0.5 h (16 ± 5 nmol/L, 2.61 ± 0.46 μmol/L, and 0.13 ± 0.03 μmol/L, respectively) after acute cocoa consumption and reached maximal concentrations by 2 h (41 ± 4 nmol/L, 5.92 ± 0.60 μmol/L, and 0.16 ± 0.03 μmol/L, respectively). Conclusion: Dimeric procyanidins can be detected in human plasma as early as 30 min after the consumption of a flavanol-rich food such as cocoa.

AB - Background: Epidemiologic studies have linked flavonoid-rich foods with a reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality. Some cocoas are flavonoid-rich and contain the monomeric flavanols (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and oligomeric procyanidins formed from these monomeric units. Both the monomers and the oligomers have shown potential in favorably influencing cardiovascular health in in vitro and preliminary clinical studies. Although previous investigations have shown increasing concentrations of (-)-epicatechin in human plasma after cocoa consumption, no information is available in the published literature regarding the presence of procyanidins in human plasma. Objective: This study sought to determine whether procyanidins can be detected and quantified in human plasma after acute consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa. Design: Peripheral blood was obtained from 5 healthy adult subjects before (baseline, 0 h) and 0.5, 2, and 6 h after consumption of 0.375 g cocoa/kg body wt as a beverage. Plasma samples were analyzed for monomers and procyanidins with the use of reversedphase HPLC with coulometric electrochemical array detection and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Procyanidin dimer, (-)-epicatechin, and (+)-catechin were detected in the plasma of human subjects as early as 0.5 h (16 ± 5 nmol/L, 2.61 ± 0.46 μmol/L, and 0.13 ± 0.03 μmol/L, respectively) after acute cocoa consumption and reached maximal concentrations by 2 h (41 ± 4 nmol/L, 5.92 ± 0.60 μmol/L, and 0.16 ± 0.03 μmol/L, respectively). Conclusion: Dimeric procyanidins can be detected in human plasma as early as 30 min after the consumption of a flavanol-rich food such as cocoa.

KW - Catechin

KW - Chocolate

KW - Cocoa

KW - Coulometric electrochemical array detection

KW - Epicatechin

KW - Flavonoid

KW - Procyanidin

KW - Reversed-phase HPLC

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