Intestinal dysbiosis precedes and is a likely causative factor in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and many cases of late-onset sepsis. Randomized controlled trials and observational cohort studies demonstrate decreased risk of NEC, sepsis, and death with the administration of probiotic microbes and decreased risk of NEC and sepsis with feeding of human milk. Animal studies suggest promising mechanisms by which probiotic microbes and human milk oligosaccharides alter the composition of the intestinal microbiota and may prevent disease in premature infants. Inclusion of parents in discussions of the risks and benefits of human milk and probiotics for premature infants is essential.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health