Recent advances in microphysiological systems have made significant strides to include design features that reconstruct key elements found in the brain, and in parallel advance technologies to detect the activity of electrogenic cells that form neural networks. In particular, three-dimensional multielectrode arrays (3D MEAs) are being developed with increasing levels of spatial and temporal precision, difficult to achieve with current 2D MEAs, insertable MEA probes, and/or optical imaging of calcium dynamics. Thus, providing a means to monitor the flow of neural network activity within all three dimensions (X, Y, and Z) of the engineered tissue. In the last 6 years, 3D MEAs, using either bottom-up or top-down designs, have been developed to overcome the current technical challenges in monitoring the functionality of the in vitro systems. Herein, we will report on the design and application of novel 3D MEA prototypes for probing neural activity throughout the 3D neural tissue.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Drug Discovery