Print-to-Print: Printer-enabled out-of-cleanroom multiobject microprinting method

Siyuan Xing, Siwei Zhao, Tingrui Pan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Micropatterning techniques have gained growing interests from a broad range of engineering and biology researches as it realizes the high-throughput and highly quantitative investigations on miniature biological objects (e.g., cells and bacteria) by spatially defined micropatterns. However, most of the existing techniques rely on expensive instruments or intensive cleanroom access which may not be easy to be utilized in a regular biological laboratory. Here, we present the detailed procedures of a simple versatile microprinting process, referred to as Print-to-Print (P2P), to form multiobject micropatterns for potential biological applications. Only a solid-phase printer and custom-made superhydrophobic (SH) films are utilized for the printing and no thermal or chemical treatment is involved during the entire printing process. Moreover, the noncontact nature of droplet transferring and printing steps can be highly advantageous for sensitive biological uses. By the P2P process, a minimal feature resolution of 229 ± 17 μm has been successfully achieved. What's more, this approach has been applied to form micropatterning on various commonly used substrates in biology as well as multiobject co-patterns. In addition, the SH substrates have also been demonstrated to be reusable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)219-233
Number of pages15
JournalMethods in Cell Biology
StatePublished - Jan 23 2014


  • Bio-fabrication
  • Bio-patterning
  • Bio-printing
  • Microfabrication
  • Micropatterning
  • Rapid-prototyping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology


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