Prevalence of salmonella in municipal sewage treatment plant effluents in southern California

H. Kinde, M. Adelson, A. Ardans, E. H. Little, D. Willoughby, D. Berchtold, D. H. Read, R. Breitmeyer, D. Kerr, R. Tarbell, E. Hughes

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27 Scopus citations


Effluents from 12 sewage treatment plants in southern California were examined for Salmonella using a Moore swab technique. Eight of the 12 plants were positive for Salmonella when sampled at the chlorination/dechlorination site (inside the plant). Effluents from 11 of 12 sewage treatment plants were positive for Salmonella when samples were analyzed downstream of the chlorination/dechlorination site, before effluents merge with the receiving stream (outside the plant). Two of the three control sites, an urban runoff, a raw potable water reservoir, and two other sites were also positive for Salmonella. A total of 683 Salmonella isolations were represented by 11 serogroups and 54 serotypes from 26 of 32 sampling sites. Effluents from three treatment plants and one control site (raw potable water reservior) yielded Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4, in addition to other serotypes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)392-398
Number of pages7
JournalAvian Diseases
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1997


  • Phage type 4
  • Salmonella
  • Salmonella enteritidis
  • Sewage effluent
  • Sewage treatment plant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Cancer Research
  • veterinary(all)


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