Prevalence, location and symmetry of noncatastrophic ligamentous suspensory apparatus lesions in California Thoroughbred racehorses, and association of these lesions with catastrophic injuries

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Abstract

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Knowledge of the site distribution of ligamentous injuries facilitates clinical diagnosis of suspensory apparatus conditions.

OBJECTIVES: To determine if lesions within the suspensory ligament (SL) and distal ligaments of the proximal sesamoid bones (DSLs) were associated with suspensory apparatus failure or metacarpal lateral condylar fracture in California Thoroughbred racehorses.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

METHODS: Suspensory apparatus specimens from 327 deceased Thoroughbred racehorses were sectioned within the SL body and branches, and oblique and straight DSLs. Purple lesions ≥2 mm in width were categorised as moderate and paler or smaller lesions as mild. Associations between moderate lesions and age, sex, racetrack and cause of death were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression.

RESULTS: Moderate lesions were evident in 16% and milder lesions in 77% of racehorses. Moderate lesions occurred with similar frequency in SL branches and oblique DSLs. Moderate lesions were more likely to occur in horses that died as a result of suspensory apparatus failure (odds ratio [OR] = 4.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61-13.13; and P = 0.004) or metacarpal lateral condylar fracture (OR = 5.05; 95% CI 1.42-17.93; and P = 0.012) compared with horses that died from nonmusculoskeletal causes, and in horses aged ≥7 years horses compared with 2-year-old horses (OR = 5.33; 95% CI 1.44-19.75; and P = 0.012).

CONCLUSIONS: Moderate lesions are common in the SL branches and oblique DSLs of racehorses, and may be associated with risk for suspensory apparatus failure and metacarpal condylar fracture. Monitoring health of the suspensory apparatus ligamentous structures may be a simple means of assessing fatigue in, and preventing more extensive injuries to, the forelimb suspensory apparatus and metacarpal condyles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)27-32
Number of pages6
JournalEquine Veterinary Journal
Volume48
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

Fingerprint

racehorses
Ligaments
Metacarpal Bones
lesions (animal)
Horses
metacarpus
ligaments
Wounds and Injuries
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
horses
odds ratio
Sesamoid Bones
confidence interval
Forelimb
Fatigue
Cause of Death
Cross-Sectional Studies
sesamoid bones
Logistic Models

Keywords

  • horse
  • ligament injury
  • risk factors
  • suspensory apparatus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Equine

Cite this

@article{0003a7d61ae545a1b6c1eed657b33ff4,
title = "Prevalence, location and symmetry of noncatastrophic ligamentous suspensory apparatus lesions in California Thoroughbred racehorses, and association of these lesions with catastrophic injuries",
abstract = "REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Knowledge of the site distribution of ligamentous injuries facilitates clinical diagnosis of suspensory apparatus conditions.OBJECTIVES: To determine if lesions within the suspensory ligament (SL) and distal ligaments of the proximal sesamoid bones (DSLs) were associated with suspensory apparatus failure or metacarpal lateral condylar fracture in California Thoroughbred racehorses.STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.METHODS: Suspensory apparatus specimens from 327 deceased Thoroughbred racehorses were sectioned within the SL body and branches, and oblique and straight DSLs. Purple lesions ≥2 mm in width were categorised as moderate and paler or smaller lesions as mild. Associations between moderate lesions and age, sex, racetrack and cause of death were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression.RESULTS: Moderate lesions were evident in 16{\%} and milder lesions in 77{\%} of racehorses. Moderate lesions occurred with similar frequency in SL branches and oblique DSLs. Moderate lesions were more likely to occur in horses that died as a result of suspensory apparatus failure (odds ratio [OR] = 4.60; 95{\%} confidence interval [CI] 1.61-13.13; and P = 0.004) or metacarpal lateral condylar fracture (OR = 5.05; 95{\%} CI 1.42-17.93; and P = 0.012) compared with horses that died from nonmusculoskeletal causes, and in horses aged ≥7 years horses compared with 2-year-old horses (OR = 5.33; 95{\%} CI 1.44-19.75; and P = 0.012).CONCLUSIONS: Moderate lesions are common in the SL branches and oblique DSLs of racehorses, and may be associated with risk for suspensory apparatus failure and metacarpal condylar fracture. Monitoring health of the suspensory apparatus ligamentous structures may be a simple means of assessing fatigue in, and preventing more extensive injuries to, the forelimb suspensory apparatus and metacarpal condyles.",
keywords = "horse, ligament injury, risk factors, suspensory apparatus",
author = "Hill, {Ashley E} and Ian Gardner and Tim Carpenter and Lee, {C. M.} and Hitchens, {P. L.} and Stover, {Susan M}",
year = "2016",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/evj.12367",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "48",
pages = "27--32",
journal = "Equine veterinary journal. Supplement",
issn = "2042-3306",
publisher = "British Equine Veterinary Association",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Prevalence, location and symmetry of noncatastrophic ligamentous suspensory apparatus lesions in California Thoroughbred racehorses, and association of these lesions with catastrophic injuries

AU - Hill, Ashley E

AU - Gardner, Ian

AU - Carpenter, Tim

AU - Lee, C. M.

AU - Hitchens, P. L.

AU - Stover, Susan M

PY - 2016/1/1

Y1 - 2016/1/1

N2 - REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Knowledge of the site distribution of ligamentous injuries facilitates clinical diagnosis of suspensory apparatus conditions.OBJECTIVES: To determine if lesions within the suspensory ligament (SL) and distal ligaments of the proximal sesamoid bones (DSLs) were associated with suspensory apparatus failure or metacarpal lateral condylar fracture in California Thoroughbred racehorses.STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.METHODS: Suspensory apparatus specimens from 327 deceased Thoroughbred racehorses were sectioned within the SL body and branches, and oblique and straight DSLs. Purple lesions ≥2 mm in width were categorised as moderate and paler or smaller lesions as mild. Associations between moderate lesions and age, sex, racetrack and cause of death were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression.RESULTS: Moderate lesions were evident in 16% and milder lesions in 77% of racehorses. Moderate lesions occurred with similar frequency in SL branches and oblique DSLs. Moderate lesions were more likely to occur in horses that died as a result of suspensory apparatus failure (odds ratio [OR] = 4.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61-13.13; and P = 0.004) or metacarpal lateral condylar fracture (OR = 5.05; 95% CI 1.42-17.93; and P = 0.012) compared with horses that died from nonmusculoskeletal causes, and in horses aged ≥7 years horses compared with 2-year-old horses (OR = 5.33; 95% CI 1.44-19.75; and P = 0.012).CONCLUSIONS: Moderate lesions are common in the SL branches and oblique DSLs of racehorses, and may be associated with risk for suspensory apparatus failure and metacarpal condylar fracture. Monitoring health of the suspensory apparatus ligamentous structures may be a simple means of assessing fatigue in, and preventing more extensive injuries to, the forelimb suspensory apparatus and metacarpal condyles.

AB - REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Knowledge of the site distribution of ligamentous injuries facilitates clinical diagnosis of suspensory apparatus conditions.OBJECTIVES: To determine if lesions within the suspensory ligament (SL) and distal ligaments of the proximal sesamoid bones (DSLs) were associated with suspensory apparatus failure or metacarpal lateral condylar fracture in California Thoroughbred racehorses.STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.METHODS: Suspensory apparatus specimens from 327 deceased Thoroughbred racehorses were sectioned within the SL body and branches, and oblique and straight DSLs. Purple lesions ≥2 mm in width were categorised as moderate and paler or smaller lesions as mild. Associations between moderate lesions and age, sex, racetrack and cause of death were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression.RESULTS: Moderate lesions were evident in 16% and milder lesions in 77% of racehorses. Moderate lesions occurred with similar frequency in SL branches and oblique DSLs. Moderate lesions were more likely to occur in horses that died as a result of suspensory apparatus failure (odds ratio [OR] = 4.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61-13.13; and P = 0.004) or metacarpal lateral condylar fracture (OR = 5.05; 95% CI 1.42-17.93; and P = 0.012) compared with horses that died from nonmusculoskeletal causes, and in horses aged ≥7 years horses compared with 2-year-old horses (OR = 5.33; 95% CI 1.44-19.75; and P = 0.012).CONCLUSIONS: Moderate lesions are common in the SL branches and oblique DSLs of racehorses, and may be associated with risk for suspensory apparatus failure and metacarpal condylar fracture. Monitoring health of the suspensory apparatus ligamentous structures may be a simple means of assessing fatigue in, and preventing more extensive injuries to, the forelimb suspensory apparatus and metacarpal condyles.

KW - horse

KW - ligament injury

KW - risk factors

KW - suspensory apparatus

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