Prevalence, environmental loading, and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia isolates from domestic and wild animals along the central California coast

Stori C. Oates, Melissa A. Miller, Dane Hardin, Patricia A Conrad, Ann Melli, David A. Jessup, Clare Dominik, Annette Roug, M. Tim Tinker, Woutrina A Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The risk of disease transmission from waterborne protozoa is often dependent on the origin (e.g., domestic animals versus wildlife), overall parasite load in contaminated waterways, and parasite genotype, with infections being linked to runoff or direct deposition of domestic animal and wildlife feces. Fecal samples collected from domestic animals and wildlife along the central California coast were screened to (i) compare the prevalence and associated risk factors for fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species parasites, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of animal host groups that contribute to pathogen loading in coastal ecosystems, and (iii) characterize zoonotic and host-specific genotypes. Overall, 6% of fecal samples tested during 2007 to 2010 were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and 15% were positive for Giardia cysts. Animal host group and age class were significantly associated with detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in animal feces. Fecal loading analysis revealed that infected beef cattle potentially contribute the greatest parasite load relative to other host groups, followed by wild canids. Beef cattle, however, shed host-specific, minimally zoonotic Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis genotypes, whereas wild canids shed potentially zoonotic genotypes, including G. duodenalis assemblages A and B. Given that the parasite genotypes detected in cattle were not zoonotic, the public health risk posed by protozoan parasite shedding in cattle feces may be lower than that posed by other animals, such as wild canids, that routinely shed zoonotic genotypes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8762-8772
Number of pages11
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Volume78
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2012

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Giardia
Cryptosporidium
Wild Animals
Domestic Animals
wild animals
domestic animals
Zoonoses
Genotype
genotype
Parasites
coasts
Canidae
parasite
animal
coast
canid
parasites
Feces
Parasite Load
Giardia lamblia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Biotechnology
  • Ecology

Cite this

Prevalence, environmental loading, and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia isolates from domestic and wild animals along the central California coast. / Oates, Stori C.; Miller, Melissa A.; Hardin, Dane; Conrad, Patricia A; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.; Dominik, Clare; Roug, Annette; Tinker, M. Tim; Smith, Woutrina A.

In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 78, No. 24, 12.2012, p. 8762-8772.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Oates, Stori C. ; Miller, Melissa A. ; Hardin, Dane ; Conrad, Patricia A ; Melli, Ann ; Jessup, David A. ; Dominik, Clare ; Roug, Annette ; Tinker, M. Tim ; Smith, Woutrina A. / Prevalence, environmental loading, and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia isolates from domestic and wild animals along the central California coast. In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2012 ; Vol. 78, No. 24. pp. 8762-8772.
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