Prevalence and seasonality of fleas associated with california ground squirrels and the potential risk of tularemia in an outdoor non-human primate research facility

Tara Roth, Rebecca Sammak, Janet E Foley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Ectoparasites at primate research centers may be difficult to control, e.g. without exposing non-human primates (NHPs) to toxicants, but their impact on NHP health is poorly understood. In 2010, there was an epizootic of tularemia at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC) in Yolo County, California that resulted in 20 confirmed and suspect clinical cases in outdoors housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta [Zimmermann]) and a 53% seroprevalence in the southern section of the colony. We studied ectoparasite burdens at the CNPRC in order to understand possible conditions at the time of the epizootic and provide data for the management of ectoparasites for the future. In 2015, we recorded 52 California ground squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi [Richardson]) burrow systems in the southern colony and collected 560 fleas. The largest number of fleas (n = 184) was collected in October and the most common species were Hoplopsyllus anomalus (Baker) (n = 331), Oropsylla montana (Baker) (n = 158), Echidnophaga gallinacea (Westwood) (n = 60), and Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) (n = 11), all of which are opportunistically anthropophilic. Free, non-host-associated fleas included 12 H. anomalus, 9 C. felis, 6 O. Montana, and 1 E. gallinacea. We collected 1 H. anomalus from a rhesus macaque. Our results suggest a high potential for the rapid spread of zoonotic infectious diseases via flea transmission in primate facilities with ground squirrels and that flea control measures should be given a high priority.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)452-458
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Medical Entomology
Volume55
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

tularemia
Tularemia
Siphonaptera
research facilities
Sciuridae
squirrels
Primates
Echidnophaga gallinacea
ectoparasites
Macaca mulatta
Ctenocephalides
Research
Ctenocephalides felis
Oropsylla montana
flea control
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Zoonoses
toxic substances
burrows
seroprevalence

Keywords

  • Ctenocephalides felis
  • Echidnophaga gallinacea
  • Fleas
  • Hoplopsyllus anomalus
  • Oropsylla montana

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • veterinary(all)
  • Insect Science
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

@article{7961e608b2994e95853e3f31fc31a4b4,
title = "Prevalence and seasonality of fleas associated with california ground squirrels and the potential risk of tularemia in an outdoor non-human primate research facility",
abstract = "Ectoparasites at primate research centers may be difficult to control, e.g. without exposing non-human primates (NHPs) to toxicants, but their impact on NHP health is poorly understood. In 2010, there was an epizootic of tularemia at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC) in Yolo County, California that resulted in 20 confirmed and suspect clinical cases in outdoors housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta [Zimmermann]) and a 53{\%} seroprevalence in the southern section of the colony. We studied ectoparasite burdens at the CNPRC in order to understand possible conditions at the time of the epizootic and provide data for the management of ectoparasites for the future. In 2015, we recorded 52 California ground squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi [Richardson]) burrow systems in the southern colony and collected 560 fleas. The largest number of fleas (n = 184) was collected in October and the most common species were Hoplopsyllus anomalus (Baker) (n = 331), Oropsylla montana (Baker) (n = 158), Echidnophaga gallinacea (Westwood) (n = 60), and Ctenocephalides felis (Bouch{\'e}) (n = 11), all of which are opportunistically anthropophilic. Free, non-host-associated fleas included 12 H. anomalus, 9 C. felis, 6 O. Montana, and 1 E. gallinacea. We collected 1 H. anomalus from a rhesus macaque. Our results suggest a high potential for the rapid spread of zoonotic infectious diseases via flea transmission in primate facilities with ground squirrels and that flea control measures should be given a high priority.",
keywords = "Ctenocephalides felis, Echidnophaga gallinacea, Fleas, Hoplopsyllus anomalus, Oropsylla montana",
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T1 - Prevalence and seasonality of fleas associated with california ground squirrels and the potential risk of tularemia in an outdoor non-human primate research facility

AU - Roth, Tara

AU - Sammak, Rebecca

AU - Foley, Janet E

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Ectoparasites at primate research centers may be difficult to control, e.g. without exposing non-human primates (NHPs) to toxicants, but their impact on NHP health is poorly understood. In 2010, there was an epizootic of tularemia at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC) in Yolo County, California that resulted in 20 confirmed and suspect clinical cases in outdoors housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta [Zimmermann]) and a 53% seroprevalence in the southern section of the colony. We studied ectoparasite burdens at the CNPRC in order to understand possible conditions at the time of the epizootic and provide data for the management of ectoparasites for the future. In 2015, we recorded 52 California ground squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi [Richardson]) burrow systems in the southern colony and collected 560 fleas. The largest number of fleas (n = 184) was collected in October and the most common species were Hoplopsyllus anomalus (Baker) (n = 331), Oropsylla montana (Baker) (n = 158), Echidnophaga gallinacea (Westwood) (n = 60), and Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) (n = 11), all of which are opportunistically anthropophilic. Free, non-host-associated fleas included 12 H. anomalus, 9 C. felis, 6 O. Montana, and 1 E. gallinacea. We collected 1 H. anomalus from a rhesus macaque. Our results suggest a high potential for the rapid spread of zoonotic infectious diseases via flea transmission in primate facilities with ground squirrels and that flea control measures should be given a high priority.

AB - Ectoparasites at primate research centers may be difficult to control, e.g. without exposing non-human primates (NHPs) to toxicants, but their impact on NHP health is poorly understood. In 2010, there was an epizootic of tularemia at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC) in Yolo County, California that resulted in 20 confirmed and suspect clinical cases in outdoors housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta [Zimmermann]) and a 53% seroprevalence in the southern section of the colony. We studied ectoparasite burdens at the CNPRC in order to understand possible conditions at the time of the epizootic and provide data for the management of ectoparasites for the future. In 2015, we recorded 52 California ground squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi [Richardson]) burrow systems in the southern colony and collected 560 fleas. The largest number of fleas (n = 184) was collected in October and the most common species were Hoplopsyllus anomalus (Baker) (n = 331), Oropsylla montana (Baker) (n = 158), Echidnophaga gallinacea (Westwood) (n = 60), and Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) (n = 11), all of which are opportunistically anthropophilic. Free, non-host-associated fleas included 12 H. anomalus, 9 C. felis, 6 O. Montana, and 1 E. gallinacea. We collected 1 H. anomalus from a rhesus macaque. Our results suggest a high potential for the rapid spread of zoonotic infectious diseases via flea transmission in primate facilities with ground squirrels and that flea control measures should be given a high priority.

KW - Ctenocephalides felis

KW - Echidnophaga gallinacea

KW - Fleas

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KW - Oropsylla montana

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