Prevalence and genetic characterization of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada

Danielle A. Julien, Jan M. Sargeant, Rebecca A. Guy, Karen Shapiro, Rachel K. Imai, Anna Bunce, Enooyaq Sudlovenick, Shu Chen, Jiping Li, Sherilee L. Harper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

There are few epidemiologic studies on the role of dogs in zoonotic parasitic transmission in the Circumpolar North. The objectives of this study were to: (a) estimate the faecal prevalence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs; (b) investigate potential associations between the type of dog population and the faecal presence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp.; and (c) describe the molecular characteristics of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs in Iqaluit, Nunavut. We conducted two cross-sectional studies in July and September 2016. In July, the team collected daily faecal samples for 3 days from each of 20 sled dogs. In September, the team collected three faecal samples from each of 59 sled dogs, 111 samples from shelter dogs and 104 from community dogs. We analysed faecal samples for the presence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. using rapid immunoassay and flotation techniques. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of target genes were performed on positive faecal samples. Overall, the faecal prevalence of at least one of the target parasites, when one faecal sample was chosen at random for all dogs, was 8.16% (CI: 5.52–11.92), and for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., prevalence was 4.42% (CI: 2.58–7.49) and 6.12% (CI: 3.88–9.53), respectively. The odds of faecal Giardia spp. in sled dogs were significantly higher than those in shelter and community dogs (OR 10.19 [CI: 1.16–89.35]). Sequence analysis revealed that 6 faecal samples were Giardia intestinalis, zoonotic assemblage B (n = 2) and species-specific assemblages D (n = 3) and E (n = 1), and five faecal samples were Cryptosporidium canis. Giardia intestinalis is zoonotic; however, Cryptosporidium canis is rare in humans and, when present, usually occurs in immunosuppressed individuals. Dogs may be a potential source of zoonotic Giardia intestinalis assemblage B infections in residents in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada; however, the direction of transmission is unclear.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalZoonoses and Public Health
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Nunavut
Giardia
Cryptosporidium
Canada
Dogs
dogs
sled dogs
Giardia lamblia
Zoonoses
sampling
Canis
immunoassays
cross-sectional studies
epidemiological studies
sequence analysis

Keywords

  • Circumpolar North
  • Cryptosporidium
  • dog
  • Giardia
  • Nunavut
  • One Health
  • zoonoses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Prevalence and genetic characterization of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. / Julien, Danielle A.; Sargeant, Jan M.; Guy, Rebecca A.; Shapiro, Karen; Imai, Rachel K.; Bunce, Anna; Sudlovenick, Enooyaq; Chen, Shu; Li, Jiping; Harper, Sherilee L.

In: Zoonoses and Public Health, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Julien, Danielle A. ; Sargeant, Jan M. ; Guy, Rebecca A. ; Shapiro, Karen ; Imai, Rachel K. ; Bunce, Anna ; Sudlovenick, Enooyaq ; Chen, Shu ; Li, Jiping ; Harper, Sherilee L. / Prevalence and genetic characterization of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. In: Zoonoses and Public Health. 2019.
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abstract = "There are few epidemiologic studies on the role of dogs in zoonotic parasitic transmission in the Circumpolar North. The objectives of this study were to: (a) estimate the faecal prevalence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs; (b) investigate potential associations between the type of dog population and the faecal presence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp.; and (c) describe the molecular characteristics of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs in Iqaluit, Nunavut. We conducted two cross-sectional studies in July and September 2016. In July, the team collected daily faecal samples for 3 days from each of 20 sled dogs. In September, the team collected three faecal samples from each of 59 sled dogs, 111 samples from shelter dogs and 104 from community dogs. We analysed faecal samples for the presence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. using rapid immunoassay and flotation techniques. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of target genes were performed on positive faecal samples. Overall, the faecal prevalence of at least one of the target parasites, when one faecal sample was chosen at random for all dogs, was 8.16{\%} (CI: 5.52–11.92), and for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., prevalence was 4.42{\%} (CI: 2.58–7.49) and 6.12{\%} (CI: 3.88–9.53), respectively. The odds of faecal Giardia spp. in sled dogs were significantly higher than those in shelter and community dogs (OR 10.19 [CI: 1.16–89.35]). Sequence analysis revealed that 6 faecal samples were Giardia intestinalis, zoonotic assemblage B (n = 2) and species-specific assemblages D (n = 3) and E (n = 1), and five faecal samples were Cryptosporidium canis. Giardia intestinalis is zoonotic; however, Cryptosporidium canis is rare in humans and, when present, usually occurs in immunosuppressed individuals. Dogs may be a potential source of zoonotic Giardia intestinalis assemblage B infections in residents in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada; however, the direction of transmission is unclear.",
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AU - Guy, Rebecca A.

AU - Shapiro, Karen

AU - Imai, Rachel K.

AU - Bunce, Anna

AU - Sudlovenick, Enooyaq

AU - Chen, Shu

AU - Li, Jiping

AU - Harper, Sherilee L.

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N2 - There are few epidemiologic studies on the role of dogs in zoonotic parasitic transmission in the Circumpolar North. The objectives of this study were to: (a) estimate the faecal prevalence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs; (b) investigate potential associations between the type of dog population and the faecal presence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp.; and (c) describe the molecular characteristics of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs in Iqaluit, Nunavut. We conducted two cross-sectional studies in July and September 2016. In July, the team collected daily faecal samples for 3 days from each of 20 sled dogs. In September, the team collected three faecal samples from each of 59 sled dogs, 111 samples from shelter dogs and 104 from community dogs. We analysed faecal samples for the presence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. using rapid immunoassay and flotation techniques. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of target genes were performed on positive faecal samples. Overall, the faecal prevalence of at least one of the target parasites, when one faecal sample was chosen at random for all dogs, was 8.16% (CI: 5.52–11.92), and for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., prevalence was 4.42% (CI: 2.58–7.49) and 6.12% (CI: 3.88–9.53), respectively. The odds of faecal Giardia spp. in sled dogs were significantly higher than those in shelter and community dogs (OR 10.19 [CI: 1.16–89.35]). Sequence analysis revealed that 6 faecal samples were Giardia intestinalis, zoonotic assemblage B (n = 2) and species-specific assemblages D (n = 3) and E (n = 1), and five faecal samples were Cryptosporidium canis. Giardia intestinalis is zoonotic; however, Cryptosporidium canis is rare in humans and, when present, usually occurs in immunosuppressed individuals. Dogs may be a potential source of zoonotic Giardia intestinalis assemblage B infections in residents in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada; however, the direction of transmission is unclear.

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