Premutation Allele Combined with Caregiver Distress Factor Increase the Risk of Depression in Fragile X Carriers: Indonesia Setting

Tri Indah Winarni, Tanjung Ayu Sumekar, Susilo Wibowo, Randi J. Hagerman, Sultana M.H. Faradz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study was done to determine the risk of anxiety and depression symptoms among fragile X permutation carriers. Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HARS) and Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) was administered by trained physicians to measure the severity of anxiety and depression symptoms, respectively. Caregiver distress factors which directly contribute to caregiver burden in particular degree of relationship with the child, number of FXS child, child institutional/educational status, number of hours spent providing care per day, and the degree of illness severity were documented. Thirty-one fragile X carriers (27 females, 4 males), aged 32-77 years participated in this study. Only 3.2% had anxiety symptoms, while depression symptoms were identified in 35.5% carriers. Number of hours of providing care/day were significantly associated with depression symptoms (p<0.001). The prevalence ratio (PR) of depression among individuals who had a distress score above cut-off was 3.2 (95% CI= 1.2 to 8.5) compared to those who had a distress score below cut-off with p=0.02. Fragile X premutation carriers are at a greater risk to develop depression symptoms related to the hours spent in caring for children with fragile X syndrome (FXS).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)200-208
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Intellectual Disability - Diagnosis and Treatment
Volume7
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Anxiety
  • caregiver burden
  • depression
  • fragile X-associated disorders
  • premutation carriers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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