Pregnancy detection by ultrasound and chorionic gonadotropin during the peri-implantation period in the macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

Alice F Tarantal, L. S. Laughlin, J. Dieter, J. Tieu, Andrew G Hendrickx, J. W. Overstreet, B. L. Lasley

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13 Scopus citations


The goal of these studies was to correlate sonographic evidence of pregnancy during the peri-implantation period with the timing of the rise in monkey chorionic gonadotropin (mCG) as measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Animals were time-mated at mid-cycle, and ultrasound examinations were performed on postovulation days 12-15 (n = 77). Pregnancy was sonographically identified in 48 of 77 animals (62.3%), of which 28 had correlative ultrasound/endocrine data collected. For these animals, blood samples were obtained on postovulation days 12-15 for mCG assay. Pregnancy was identified by ultrasound on postovulation days 12 (6/28; 21.4%), 13 (6/28; 21.4%), 14 (8/28; 28.6%) or 15 (8/28; 28.6%). Seven of the 28 (25.0%) were found to have mCG levels consistent with pregnancy (> or = 1 ng/ml) on the same day as ultrasound confirmation, 12 of 28 (42.9%) were sonographically detected as pregnant 1 (n = 6), 2 (n = 3) or 3 (n = 3) days earlier than by mCG, and nine of 28 (32.1%) were found to have elevated mCG levels 1 (n = 7), 2 (n = 1) or 3 (n = 1) days earlier than ultrasound confirmation of pregnancy. The results of these studies have demonstrated (1) the utility of anatomical and endocrine techniques for detecting pregnancy approximately 3 days after the onset of implantation, and (2) the variation in the timing of implantation and the rise in circulating mCG in individual animals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)281-290
Number of pages10
JournalEarly pregnancy : biology and medicine : the official journal of the Society for the Investigation of Early Pregnancy
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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