Prefrontal cortex regulates inhibition and excitation in distributed neural networks

Robert T. Knight, W. Richard Staines, Diane Swick, Linda L. Chao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

357 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Prefrontal cortex provides both inhibitory and excitatory input to distributed neural circuits required to support performance in diverse tasks. Neurological patients with prefrontal damage are impaired in their ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information during behavioral tasks requiring performance over a delay. The observed enhancements of primary auditory and somatosensory cortical responses to task-irrelevant distractors suggest that prefrontal damage disrupts inhibitory modulation of inputs to primary sensory cortex, perhaps through abnormalities in a prefrontal-thalamic sensory gating system. Failure to suppress irrelevant sensory information results in increased neural noise, contributing to the deficits in decision making routinely observed in these patients. In addition to a critical role in inhibitory control of sensory flow to primary cortical regions, and tertiary prefrontal cortex also exerts excitatory input to activity in multiple sub-regions of secondary association cortex. Unilateral prefrontal damage results in multi-modal decreases in neural activity in posterior association cortex in the hemisphere ipsilateral to damage. This excitatory modulation is necessary to sustain neural activity during working memory. Thus, prefrontal cortex is able to sculpt behavior through parallel inhibitory and excitatory regulation of neural activity in distributed neural networks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)159-178
Number of pages20
JournalActa Psychologica
Volume101
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - Apr 1999

Fingerprint

Prefrontal Cortex
Sensory Gating
Aptitude
Task Performance and Analysis
Short-Term Memory
Noise
Decision Making
Inhibition (Psychology)
Damage
Neural Networks
Cortex
Modulation

Keywords

  • Attention
  • Excitation
  • Inhibition
  • Prefrontal
  • Schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Cite this

Knight, R. T., Staines, W. R., Swick, D., & Chao, L. L. (1999). Prefrontal cortex regulates inhibition and excitation in distributed neural networks. Acta Psychologica, 101(2-3), 159-178.

Prefrontal cortex regulates inhibition and excitation in distributed neural networks. / Knight, Robert T.; Staines, W. Richard; Swick, Diane; Chao, Linda L.

In: Acta Psychologica, Vol. 101, No. 2-3, 04.1999, p. 159-178.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Knight, RT, Staines, WR, Swick, D & Chao, LL 1999, 'Prefrontal cortex regulates inhibition and excitation in distributed neural networks', Acta Psychologica, vol. 101, no. 2-3, pp. 159-178.
Knight, Robert T. ; Staines, W. Richard ; Swick, Diane ; Chao, Linda L. / Prefrontal cortex regulates inhibition and excitation in distributed neural networks. In: Acta Psychologica. 1999 ; Vol. 101, No. 2-3. pp. 159-178.
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