Predictive Factors for Patients Undergoing ASD Device Occlusion Who “Crossover” to Surgery

Venkatachalam Mulukutla, Athar M. Qureshi, Ricardo Pignatelli, Frank Ing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The aim of this study was to define characteristics of those patients who are referred for device closure of an Atrial septal defect (ASD), but identified to “crossover” surgery. All patients who underwent surgical and device (Amplatzer or Helex occluder) closures of secundum ASDs from 2001 to 2010 were reviewed and organized into three groups: surgical closure, device closure, and “crossover” group. 369 patients underwent ASD closure (265 device, 104 surgical). 42 of the 265 patients referred for device closure “crossed over” to the surgical group at various stages of the catheterization procedure. The device group had defect size measuring 14.2 mm (mean) and an ASD index (Defect Size (mm)/BSA) of 14.0 compared to the corresponding values in the surgical group (20.1 mm, ASD index 25.9) (P < 0.001) and in the “crossover” group (20.7 mm, 22.6 ASD index) (P < 0.001). 79 patients in the device group had a deficient rim, and 86% were located in the retroaortic region. 33 patients in the “crossover” group had deficient rims with 70% deficiency in the posterior/inferior rim. The device group with deficient rims had an ASD index of 14.7 compared with the crossover group ASD index of 23.8 (P < 0.001). Comparing the device and “crossover” groups, an ASD index greater than 23.7 had a 90% specificity in “crossing over” to surgery. The crossover and surgical groups had statistically larger ASD defect size indexes compared with the device group. Deficient rim in the posterior/inferior rim is associated with a large ASD size index which is a predictive factor for crossing over to surgery. Catheterization did not negatively impact surgical results in the “crossover” group.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)445-449
Number of pages5
JournalPediatric Cardiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Secundum atrial septal defect
  • Transcatheter closure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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