Predicting Mechanical Failure Following Cervical Deformity Surgery: A Composite Score Integrating Age-Adjusted Cervical Alignment Targets

On behalf of the International Spine Study Group (ISSG)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Objectives: Investigate a composite score to evaluate the relationship between alignment proportionality and risk of distal junctional kyphosis (DJK). Methods: 84 patients with minimum 1 year follow-up were included (age = 61.1 ± 10.3 years, 64.3% women). The Cervical Score was constructed using offsets from age-adjusted normative values for sagittal vertical axis (SVA), T1 Slope (TS), and TS minus cervical lordosis (CL). Individual points were assigned based on offset with age-adjusted alignment targets and summed to generate the Cervical Score. Rates of mechanical failure (DJK revision or severe DJK [DJK> 20° and ΔDJK> 10°]) were assessed overall and based on Cervical Score. Logistical regressions assessed associations between early radiographic alignment and 1-year failure rate. Results: Mechanical failure rate was 21.4% (N = 18), 10.7% requiring revision. By multivariate logistical regression: 3-month T1S (OR:.935), TS-CL (OR:0.882), and SVA (OR:1.015) were independent predictors of 1-year failure (all P <.05). Cervical Score ranged (−6 to 6), 37.8% of patients between −1 and 1, and 50.0% with 2 or higher. DJK patients had significantly higher Cervical Score (4.1 ± 1.3 vs.6 ± 2.2, P <.001). Patients with a score ≥3 were significantly more likely to develop a failure (71.4%) with OR of 38.55 (95%CI [7.73; 192.26]) and Nagelkerke r2.524 (P <.001) Conclusion: This study developed a composite alignment score predictive of mechanical failures in CD surgery. A score ≥3 at 3 months following surgery was associated with a marked increase in failure rate. The Cervical Score can be used to analyze sagittal alignment and help define realignment objectives to reduce mechanical failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalGlobal Spine Journal
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • CD
  • cervical deformity
  • distal junctional kyphosis
  • DJK
  • mechanical failure
  • sagittal alignment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology

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