Potential impact of an introduction of foot-and-mouth disease into the California State Fair

Tim Carpenter, Lasse E. Christiansen, Bradley F. Dickey, Clair Thunes, Pam Hullinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Objective - To estimate the potential spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) if infected livestock had been exhibited at the 2005 California State Fair. Design - Epidemic model. Animals - Dairy cattle, dairy goats, and pygmy goats exhibited between August 24 and August 28 by 195 exhibitors. Procedures - 2 stochastic models were used to simulate epidemics of FMD that might originate from 1, 3, 5, 7 or 10 index cases at the state fair. Data obtained from state fair exhibitors were used to determine the spatial distribution and types of herds to which livestock visiting the state fair returned. Results - Mean estimated numbers of latently infected animals on day 5 were 12.3 and 75.9, respectively, when it was assumed that there were 1 and 10 index cases. Regardless of the number of index cases, mean estimated numbers of subclinically infected and clinically infected animals were low throughout the 5-day study period. Mean estimated duration of the resulting epidemic ranged from 111 to 155 days, mean number of infected premises ranged from 33 to 244, and mean probability that at least 1 animal that became infected with FMD would subsequently leave the state ranged from 28% to 96% as the number of index cases increased from 1 to 10, respectively. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Results suggested that following introduction of FMD at the California State Fair, infection would likely go undetected until after animals left the fair and that the subsequent outbreak would spread rapidly.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1231-1235
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Issue number8
StatePublished - Oct 15 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Potential impact of an introduction of foot-and-mouth disease into the California State Fair'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this