Postmortem changes in the neuroanatomical characteristics of the primate brain: Hippocampal formation

Pierre Lavenex, Pamela Banta Lavenex, Jeffrey L. Bennett, David G Amaral

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Comparative studies of the structural organization of the brain are fundamental to our understanding of human brain function. However, whereas brains of experimental animals are fixed by perfusion of a fixative through the vasculature, human or ape brains are fixed by immersion after varying postmortem intervals. Although differential treatments might affect the fundamental characteristics of the tissue, this question has not been evaluated empirically in primate brains. Monkey brains were either perfused or acquired after varying postmortem intervals before immersion-fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde. We found that the fixation method affected the neuroanatomical characteristics of the monkey hippocampal formation. Soma size was smaller in Nissl-stained, immersion-fixed tissue, although overall brain volume was larger as compared to perfusion-fixed tissue. Nonphosphorylated high-molecular-weight neurofilament immunoreactivity was lower in CA3 pyramidal neurons, dentate mossy cells, and the entorhinal cortex, whereas it was higher in the mossy fiber pathway in immersion-fixed tissue. Serotonin-immunoreactive fibers were well stained in perfused tissue but were undetectable in immersion-fixed tissue. Although regional immunoreactivity patterns for calcium-binding proteins were not affected, intracellular staining degraded with increasing postmortem intervals. Somatostatin-immunoreactive clusters of large axonal varicosities, previously reported only in humans, were observed in immersion-fixed monkey tissue. In addition, calretinin-immunoreactive multipolar neurons, previously observed only in rodents, were found in the rostral dentate gyrus in both perfused and immersion-fixed brains. In conclusion, comparative studies of the brain must evaluate the effects of fixation on the staining pattern of each marker in every structure of interest before drawing conclusions about species differences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)27-51
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Comparative Neurology
Volume512
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2009

Fingerprint

Postmortem Changes
Primates
Hippocampus
Immersion
Brain
Haplorhini
Perfusion
Staining and Labeling
Calbindin 2
Fixatives
Entorhinal Cortex
Calcium-Binding Proteins
Intermediate Filaments
Pyramidal Cells
Hominidae
Dentate Gyrus
Carisoprodol
Somatostatin
Rodentia
Serotonin

Keywords

  • Hippocampus
  • Human
  • Immersion
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Nisal
  • Perfusion
  • Primate
  • Rhesus monkey
  • Species differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Postmortem changes in the neuroanatomical characteristics of the primate brain : Hippocampal formation. / Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Bennett, Jeffrey L.; Amaral, David G.

In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, Vol. 512, No. 1, 01.01.2009, p. 27-51.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lavenex, Pierre ; Lavenex, Pamela Banta ; Bennett, Jeffrey L. ; Amaral, David G. / Postmortem changes in the neuroanatomical characteristics of the primate brain : Hippocampal formation. In: Journal of Comparative Neurology. 2009 ; Vol. 512, No. 1. pp. 27-51.
@article{c1837cb792fd48c38eaedb4fe46bc356,
title = "Postmortem changes in the neuroanatomical characteristics of the primate brain: Hippocampal formation",
abstract = "Comparative studies of the structural organization of the brain are fundamental to our understanding of human brain function. However, whereas brains of experimental animals are fixed by perfusion of a fixative through the vasculature, human or ape brains are fixed by immersion after varying postmortem intervals. Although differential treatments might affect the fundamental characteristics of the tissue, this question has not been evaluated empirically in primate brains. Monkey brains were either perfused or acquired after varying postmortem intervals before immersion-fixation in 4{\%} paraformaldehyde. We found that the fixation method affected the neuroanatomical characteristics of the monkey hippocampal formation. Soma size was smaller in Nissl-stained, immersion-fixed tissue, although overall brain volume was larger as compared to perfusion-fixed tissue. Nonphosphorylated high-molecular-weight neurofilament immunoreactivity was lower in CA3 pyramidal neurons, dentate mossy cells, and the entorhinal cortex, whereas it was higher in the mossy fiber pathway in immersion-fixed tissue. Serotonin-immunoreactive fibers were well stained in perfused tissue but were undetectable in immersion-fixed tissue. Although regional immunoreactivity patterns for calcium-binding proteins were not affected, intracellular staining degraded with increasing postmortem intervals. Somatostatin-immunoreactive clusters of large axonal varicosities, previously reported only in humans, were observed in immersion-fixed monkey tissue. In addition, calretinin-immunoreactive multipolar neurons, previously observed only in rodents, were found in the rostral dentate gyrus in both perfused and immersion-fixed brains. In conclusion, comparative studies of the brain must evaluate the effects of fixation on the staining pattern of each marker in every structure of interest before drawing conclusions about species differences.",
keywords = "Hippocampus, Human, Immersion, Immunohistochemistry, Macaca mulatta, Nisal, Perfusion, Primate, Rhesus monkey, Species differences",
author = "Pierre Lavenex and Lavenex, {Pamela Banta} and Bennett, {Jeffrey L.} and Amaral, {David G}",
year = "2009",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/cne.21906",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "512",
pages = "27--51",
journal = "Journal of Comparative Neurology",
issn = "0021-9967",
publisher = "Wiley-Liss Inc.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Postmortem changes in the neuroanatomical characteristics of the primate brain

T2 - Hippocampal formation

AU - Lavenex, Pierre

AU - Lavenex, Pamela Banta

AU - Bennett, Jeffrey L.

AU - Amaral, David G

PY - 2009/1/1

Y1 - 2009/1/1

N2 - Comparative studies of the structural organization of the brain are fundamental to our understanding of human brain function. However, whereas brains of experimental animals are fixed by perfusion of a fixative through the vasculature, human or ape brains are fixed by immersion after varying postmortem intervals. Although differential treatments might affect the fundamental characteristics of the tissue, this question has not been evaluated empirically in primate brains. Monkey brains were either perfused or acquired after varying postmortem intervals before immersion-fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde. We found that the fixation method affected the neuroanatomical characteristics of the monkey hippocampal formation. Soma size was smaller in Nissl-stained, immersion-fixed tissue, although overall brain volume was larger as compared to perfusion-fixed tissue. Nonphosphorylated high-molecular-weight neurofilament immunoreactivity was lower in CA3 pyramidal neurons, dentate mossy cells, and the entorhinal cortex, whereas it was higher in the mossy fiber pathway in immersion-fixed tissue. Serotonin-immunoreactive fibers were well stained in perfused tissue but were undetectable in immersion-fixed tissue. Although regional immunoreactivity patterns for calcium-binding proteins were not affected, intracellular staining degraded with increasing postmortem intervals. Somatostatin-immunoreactive clusters of large axonal varicosities, previously reported only in humans, were observed in immersion-fixed monkey tissue. In addition, calretinin-immunoreactive multipolar neurons, previously observed only in rodents, were found in the rostral dentate gyrus in both perfused and immersion-fixed brains. In conclusion, comparative studies of the brain must evaluate the effects of fixation on the staining pattern of each marker in every structure of interest before drawing conclusions about species differences.

AB - Comparative studies of the structural organization of the brain are fundamental to our understanding of human brain function. However, whereas brains of experimental animals are fixed by perfusion of a fixative through the vasculature, human or ape brains are fixed by immersion after varying postmortem intervals. Although differential treatments might affect the fundamental characteristics of the tissue, this question has not been evaluated empirically in primate brains. Monkey brains were either perfused or acquired after varying postmortem intervals before immersion-fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde. We found that the fixation method affected the neuroanatomical characteristics of the monkey hippocampal formation. Soma size was smaller in Nissl-stained, immersion-fixed tissue, although overall brain volume was larger as compared to perfusion-fixed tissue. Nonphosphorylated high-molecular-weight neurofilament immunoreactivity was lower in CA3 pyramidal neurons, dentate mossy cells, and the entorhinal cortex, whereas it was higher in the mossy fiber pathway in immersion-fixed tissue. Serotonin-immunoreactive fibers were well stained in perfused tissue but were undetectable in immersion-fixed tissue. Although regional immunoreactivity patterns for calcium-binding proteins were not affected, intracellular staining degraded with increasing postmortem intervals. Somatostatin-immunoreactive clusters of large axonal varicosities, previously reported only in humans, were observed in immersion-fixed monkey tissue. In addition, calretinin-immunoreactive multipolar neurons, previously observed only in rodents, were found in the rostral dentate gyrus in both perfused and immersion-fixed brains. In conclusion, comparative studies of the brain must evaluate the effects of fixation on the staining pattern of each marker in every structure of interest before drawing conclusions about species differences.

KW - Hippocampus

KW - Human

KW - Immersion

KW - Immunohistochemistry

KW - Macaca mulatta

KW - Nisal

KW - Perfusion

KW - Primate

KW - Rhesus monkey

KW - Species differences

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=58249092431&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=58249092431&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/cne.21906

DO - 10.1002/cne.21906

M3 - Article

C2 - 18972553

AN - SCOPUS:58249092431

VL - 512

SP - 27

EP - 51

JO - Journal of Comparative Neurology

JF - Journal of Comparative Neurology

SN - 0021-9967

IS - 1

ER -