Population pharmacokinetics of delavirdine and N-delavirdine in HIV-infected individuals

Patrick F. Smith, Robert DiCenzo, Alan Forrest, Mark Shelton, Gerald Friedland, Michael Para, Richard B Pollard, Margaret Fischl, Robin DiFrancesco, Gene D. Morse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Delavirdine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination regimens for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Our objective was to characterise the population pharmacokinetics of delavirdine in HIV-infected patients who participated in the adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 260 and 261 studies. Methods: ACTG 261 was a randomised, double-blind study of delavirdine 400mg three times daily, in various combination regimens; ACTG 260 was a concentration-targeted monotherapy study. Two hundred and thirty-four patients, and 1254 and 1251 plasma concentrations for delavirdine and N-delavirdine, respectively, were available for population pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacokinetic model (and initial parameters), based on previous studies, included two compartments for delavirdine (peripheral and central) and parallel clearance pathways (nonlinear conversion to N-delavirdine and first order clearance from the body). The model was one compartment for N-delavirdine with first order clearance. Diurnal variation of delavirdine and N-delavirdine oral clearance was modelled as a cosine function, with amplitude variation a fitted parameter. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were derived from iterative two-stage analysis; observed delavirdine and N-delavirdine concentrations fit with weighting by the inverse observation variance. Covariates were analysed by multiple general linear modelling. Results: The mean (percent coefficient of variation [%CV]) CD4 count was 315 (109) cells/mm 3, weight 76.9 (14.7) kg, age 37 (8.5) years, and 15% of the population were women. Mean (%CV) population pharmacokinetic parameter estimates for delavirdine were: volume of distribution at steady state 67.6 (100) L, intrinsic oral clearance 19.8 (64) L/h, concentration at half the maximum velocity of metabolism (Vmax) 6.3 (69) μmol/L and first order oral clearance 0.57 (86) L/h. For N-delavirdine, the mean (%CV) apparent volume of distribution was 24.7 (75) L and apparent clearance 29.7 (42) L/h. The mean Vmax was 1376 (68) mg/day. The final model for average intrinsic clearance of delavirdine included race, sex, weight and age as significant covariates (p < 0.05); however, these covariates do not explain a significant proportion of the overall variability in the population. Conclusions: Delavirdine disposition exhibits nonlinear pharmacokinetics and large interpatient variability, and is significantly altered by time of day (impacting potential therapeutic drug monitoring and future pharmacokinetic study designs). Although race and sex appear to influence delavirdine pharmacokinetics, men and women and patients of different races should receive similar mg/kg dosage regimens. The presence of large interpatient variability supports the further investigation of the utility of therapeutic drug monitoring for delavirdine, if target drug concentrations can be better defined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)99-109
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Pharmacokinetics
Volume44
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes

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Delavirdine
Pharmacokinetics
HIV
Population
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Drug Monitoring
Clinical Trials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

Cite this

Smith, P. F., DiCenzo, R., Forrest, A., Shelton, M., Friedland, G., Para, M., ... Morse, G. D. (2005). Population pharmacokinetics of delavirdine and N-delavirdine in HIV-infected individuals. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 44(1), 99-109. https://doi.org/10.2165/00003088-200544010-00004

Population pharmacokinetics of delavirdine and N-delavirdine in HIV-infected individuals. / Smith, Patrick F.; DiCenzo, Robert; Forrest, Alan; Shelton, Mark; Friedland, Gerald; Para, Michael; Pollard, Richard B; Fischl, Margaret; DiFrancesco, Robin; Morse, Gene D.

In: Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Vol. 44, No. 1, 2005, p. 99-109.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Smith, PF, DiCenzo, R, Forrest, A, Shelton, M, Friedland, G, Para, M, Pollard, RB, Fischl, M, DiFrancesco, R & Morse, GD 2005, 'Population pharmacokinetics of delavirdine and N-delavirdine in HIV-infected individuals', Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 99-109. https://doi.org/10.2165/00003088-200544010-00004
Smith, Patrick F. ; DiCenzo, Robert ; Forrest, Alan ; Shelton, Mark ; Friedland, Gerald ; Para, Michael ; Pollard, Richard B ; Fischl, Margaret ; DiFrancesco, Robin ; Morse, Gene D. / Population pharmacokinetics of delavirdine and N-delavirdine in HIV-infected individuals. In: Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 2005 ; Vol. 44, No. 1. pp. 99-109.
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abstract = "Objective: Delavirdine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination regimens for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Our objective was to characterise the population pharmacokinetics of delavirdine in HIV-infected patients who participated in the adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 260 and 261 studies. Methods: ACTG 261 was a randomised, double-blind study of delavirdine 400mg three times daily, in various combination regimens; ACTG 260 was a concentration-targeted monotherapy study. Two hundred and thirty-four patients, and 1254 and 1251 plasma concentrations for delavirdine and N-delavirdine, respectively, were available for population pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacokinetic model (and initial parameters), based on previous studies, included two compartments for delavirdine (peripheral and central) and parallel clearance pathways (nonlinear conversion to N-delavirdine and first order clearance from the body). The model was one compartment for N-delavirdine with first order clearance. Diurnal variation of delavirdine and N-delavirdine oral clearance was modelled as a cosine function, with amplitude variation a fitted parameter. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were derived from iterative two-stage analysis; observed delavirdine and N-delavirdine concentrations fit with weighting by the inverse observation variance. Covariates were analysed by multiple general linear modelling. Results: The mean (percent coefficient of variation [{\%}CV]) CD4 count was 315 (109) cells/mm 3, weight 76.9 (14.7) kg, age 37 (8.5) years, and 15{\%} of the population were women. Mean ({\%}CV) population pharmacokinetic parameter estimates for delavirdine were: volume of distribution at steady state 67.6 (100) L, intrinsic oral clearance 19.8 (64) L/h, concentration at half the maximum velocity of metabolism (Vmax) 6.3 (69) μmol/L and first order oral clearance 0.57 (86) L/h. For N-delavirdine, the mean ({\%}CV) apparent volume of distribution was 24.7 (75) L and apparent clearance 29.7 (42) L/h. The mean Vmax was 1376 (68) mg/day. The final model for average intrinsic clearance of delavirdine included race, sex, weight and age as significant covariates (p < 0.05); however, these covariates do not explain a significant proportion of the overall variability in the population. Conclusions: Delavirdine disposition exhibits nonlinear pharmacokinetics and large interpatient variability, and is significantly altered by time of day (impacting potential therapeutic drug monitoring and future pharmacokinetic study designs). Although race and sex appear to influence delavirdine pharmacokinetics, men and women and patients of different races should receive similar mg/kg dosage regimens. The presence of large interpatient variability supports the further investigation of the utility of therapeutic drug monitoring for delavirdine, if target drug concentrations can be better defined.",
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AU - Para, Michael

AU - Pollard, Richard B

AU - Fischl, Margaret

AU - DiFrancesco, Robin

AU - Morse, Gene D.

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N2 - Objective: Delavirdine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination regimens for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Our objective was to characterise the population pharmacokinetics of delavirdine in HIV-infected patients who participated in the adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 260 and 261 studies. Methods: ACTG 261 was a randomised, double-blind study of delavirdine 400mg three times daily, in various combination regimens; ACTG 260 was a concentration-targeted monotherapy study. Two hundred and thirty-four patients, and 1254 and 1251 plasma concentrations for delavirdine and N-delavirdine, respectively, were available for population pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacokinetic model (and initial parameters), based on previous studies, included two compartments for delavirdine (peripheral and central) and parallel clearance pathways (nonlinear conversion to N-delavirdine and first order clearance from the body). The model was one compartment for N-delavirdine with first order clearance. Diurnal variation of delavirdine and N-delavirdine oral clearance was modelled as a cosine function, with amplitude variation a fitted parameter. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were derived from iterative two-stage analysis; observed delavirdine and N-delavirdine concentrations fit with weighting by the inverse observation variance. Covariates were analysed by multiple general linear modelling. Results: The mean (percent coefficient of variation [%CV]) CD4 count was 315 (109) cells/mm 3, weight 76.9 (14.7) kg, age 37 (8.5) years, and 15% of the population were women. Mean (%CV) population pharmacokinetic parameter estimates for delavirdine were: volume of distribution at steady state 67.6 (100) L, intrinsic oral clearance 19.8 (64) L/h, concentration at half the maximum velocity of metabolism (Vmax) 6.3 (69) μmol/L and first order oral clearance 0.57 (86) L/h. For N-delavirdine, the mean (%CV) apparent volume of distribution was 24.7 (75) L and apparent clearance 29.7 (42) L/h. The mean Vmax was 1376 (68) mg/day. The final model for average intrinsic clearance of delavirdine included race, sex, weight and age as significant covariates (p < 0.05); however, these covariates do not explain a significant proportion of the overall variability in the population. Conclusions: Delavirdine disposition exhibits nonlinear pharmacokinetics and large interpatient variability, and is significantly altered by time of day (impacting potential therapeutic drug monitoring and future pharmacokinetic study designs). Although race and sex appear to influence delavirdine pharmacokinetics, men and women and patients of different races should receive similar mg/kg dosage regimens. The presence of large interpatient variability supports the further investigation of the utility of therapeutic drug monitoring for delavirdine, if target drug concentrations can be better defined.

AB - Objective: Delavirdine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination regimens for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Our objective was to characterise the population pharmacokinetics of delavirdine in HIV-infected patients who participated in the adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 260 and 261 studies. Methods: ACTG 261 was a randomised, double-blind study of delavirdine 400mg three times daily, in various combination regimens; ACTG 260 was a concentration-targeted monotherapy study. Two hundred and thirty-four patients, and 1254 and 1251 plasma concentrations for delavirdine and N-delavirdine, respectively, were available for population pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacokinetic model (and initial parameters), based on previous studies, included two compartments for delavirdine (peripheral and central) and parallel clearance pathways (nonlinear conversion to N-delavirdine and first order clearance from the body). The model was one compartment for N-delavirdine with first order clearance. Diurnal variation of delavirdine and N-delavirdine oral clearance was modelled as a cosine function, with amplitude variation a fitted parameter. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were derived from iterative two-stage analysis; observed delavirdine and N-delavirdine concentrations fit with weighting by the inverse observation variance. Covariates were analysed by multiple general linear modelling. Results: The mean (percent coefficient of variation [%CV]) CD4 count was 315 (109) cells/mm 3, weight 76.9 (14.7) kg, age 37 (8.5) years, and 15% of the population were women. Mean (%CV) population pharmacokinetic parameter estimates for delavirdine were: volume of distribution at steady state 67.6 (100) L, intrinsic oral clearance 19.8 (64) L/h, concentration at half the maximum velocity of metabolism (Vmax) 6.3 (69) μmol/L and first order oral clearance 0.57 (86) L/h. For N-delavirdine, the mean (%CV) apparent volume of distribution was 24.7 (75) L and apparent clearance 29.7 (42) L/h. The mean Vmax was 1376 (68) mg/day. The final model for average intrinsic clearance of delavirdine included race, sex, weight and age as significant covariates (p < 0.05); however, these covariates do not explain a significant proportion of the overall variability in the population. Conclusions: Delavirdine disposition exhibits nonlinear pharmacokinetics and large interpatient variability, and is significantly altered by time of day (impacting potential therapeutic drug monitoring and future pharmacokinetic study designs). Although race and sex appear to influence delavirdine pharmacokinetics, men and women and patients of different races should receive similar mg/kg dosage regimens. The presence of large interpatient variability supports the further investigation of the utility of therapeutic drug monitoring for delavirdine, if target drug concentrations can be better defined.

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