Plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibody response after influenza vaccination

Xiaosong He, Sanae Sasaki, Carlos F. Narvaez, Caiqiu Zhang, Hui Liu, Jennifer C. Woo, George W. Kemble, Cornelia L. Dekker, Mark M. Davis, Harry B. Greenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

41 Scopus citations

Abstract

Conventional measurement of antibody responses to vaccines largely relies on serum antibodies, which are primarily produced by bone marrow plasma cells and may not represent the entire vaccine-induced B cell repertoire, including important functional components such as those targeted to mucosal sites. After immunization or infection, activated B cells differentiate into plasmablasts in local lymphoid organs, then traffic through circulation to the target sites where they further develop into plasma cells. On day 7 after influenza vaccination, a burst of plasmablasts, highly enriched for vaccine-specific antibody secreting cells, appears in the peripheral blood. This provides a unique window to the overall B cell response to the vaccine, without interference of pre-existing cross-reactive serum antibody. In this study we isolated B cells from volunteers on day 7 after immunization with the inactivated influenza vaccine and cultured them ex vivo to collect plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibodies (PPAb). The PPAb contained secreted IgG and IgA, which was approximately 0.2ng per antibody secreting cell. Influenza-specific IgG and IgA binding activity was detected in PPAb at dilutions up to 105 by ELISA. The ratio of the titers of influenza-specific IgA to IgG by ELISA was 4-fold higher in PPAb than in day 28 post-vaccination sera, suggesting that vaccine-induced IgA is enriched in PPAb compared to sera. Functional activity was also detected in PPAb as determined by microneutralization and hemagglutination inhibition assays. In addition to bulk B cell cultures, we also cultured plasmablast subsets sorted by cell surface markers to generate PPAb. These results suggest that PPAb better reflects the mucosal IgA response than serum samples. Since PPAb are exclusively produced by recently activated B cells, it allows assessing vaccine-induced antibody response without interference from pre-existing cross-reactive serum antibodies and permits an assessment of antibody avidity based on antigen specific binding and antibody quantity. Therefore this assay is particularly useful for studying vaccine/infection-induced antibodies against antigens that might have previously circulated, such as antibody responses to rotavirus, dengue or influenza viruses in which cross-reactive antibodies against different virus serotypes/subtypes play a critical role in immunity and/or pathogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-75
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Immunological Methods
Volume365
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 28 2011
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Antibodies
  • Influenza virus
  • Plasmablasts
  • Vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy

Cite this

He, X., Sasaki, S., Narvaez, C. F., Zhang, C., Liu, H., Woo, J. C., Kemble, G. W., Dekker, C. L., Davis, M. M., & Greenberg, H. B. (2011). Plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibody response after influenza vaccination. Journal of Immunological Methods, 365(1-2), 67-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2010.12.008