Plasma osmolality reference values in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), hispaniolan amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys)

Hugues Beaufrère, Mark Acierno, Mark Mitchell, David Guzman, Heather Bryant, Thomas N. Tully

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Birds are routinely presented to veterinarians for dehydration. Success with these cases ultimately depends on providing replacement fluids and re-establishing fluid homeostasis. Few studies have been done to determine reference ranges for plasma osmolality in birds. The goals of this study were to determine reference values for plasma osmolality in 3 species of parrots and to provide recommendations on fluid selection for replacement therapy in these species. Blood samples were collected from 21 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 21 Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), and 9 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and were placed into lithium heparin containers. Plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing point depression osmometer. Summary statistics were computed from the average values. Reference ranges, calculated by using the robust method, were 288-324, 308-345, and 223-369 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. The mean ± SD values were 306 ± 7, 327 ± 7, and 304 ± 18 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. Comparisons with osmolality values in mammals and values previously reported for psittacine bird species suggest that plasma osmolality is slightly higher in parrots than in mammals, species-specific differences exist, and differences between reported values occur. Overall, fluids with an osmolarity close to 300-320 mOsm/L, such as Normosol-R, Plasmalyte-R, Plasmalyte-A, and NaCl 0.9%, can be recommended in parrots for fluid replacement therapy when isotonic fluids are required.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)91-96
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Volume25
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2011

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Amazona
Parrots
parrots
osmolality
Osmolar Concentration
normal values
Reference Values
Birds
Mammals
Psittaciformes
Congo
Veterinarians
Fluid Therapy
birds
Dehydration
Lithium
mammals
Freezing
Heparin
Psittacus erithacus

Keywords

  • African grey parrot
  • Amazona ventralis
  • Ara rubrogenys
  • avian
  • fluid therapy
  • Hispaniolan Amazon parrot
  • osmolarity
  • plasma osmolality
  • psittacine
  • Psittacus erithacus erithacus
  • red-fronted macaw

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals

Cite this

Plasma osmolality reference values in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), hispaniolan amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys). / Beaufrère, Hugues; Acierno, Mark; Mitchell, Mark; Guzman, David; Bryant, Heather; Tully, Thomas N.

In: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, Vol. 25, No. 2, 01.06.2011, p. 91-96.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Birds are routinely presented to veterinarians for dehydration. Success with these cases ultimately depends on providing replacement fluids and re-establishing fluid homeostasis. Few studies have been done to determine reference ranges for plasma osmolality in birds. The goals of this study were to determine reference values for plasma osmolality in 3 species of parrots and to provide recommendations on fluid selection for replacement therapy in these species. Blood samples were collected from 21 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 21 Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), and 9 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and were placed into lithium heparin containers. Plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing point depression osmometer. Summary statistics were computed from the average values. Reference ranges, calculated by using the robust method, were 288-324, 308-345, and 223-369 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. The mean ± SD values were 306 ± 7, 327 ± 7, and 304 ± 18 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. Comparisons with osmolality values in mammals and values previously reported for psittacine bird species suggest that plasma osmolality is slightly higher in parrots than in mammals, species-specific differences exist, and differences between reported values occur. Overall, fluids with an osmolarity close to 300-320 mOsm/L, such as Normosol-R, Plasmalyte-R, Plasmalyte-A, and NaCl 0.9{\%}, can be recommended in parrots for fluid replacement therapy when isotonic fluids are required.",
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