Plasma membrane recruitment and activation of the AGC kinase Ypk1 is mediated by target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) and its effector proteins Slm1 and Slm2

Brad J. Niles, Huzefa Mogri, Andrew Hill, Ariadne Vlahakis, Ted Powers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

70 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The yeast AGC kinase orthologs Ypk1 and Ypk2 control several important cellular processes, including actin polarization, endocytosis, and sphingolipid metabolism. Activation of Ypk1/2 requires phosphorylation by kinases localized at the plasma membrane (PM), including the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 orthologs Pkh1/Pkh2 and the target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2). Unlike their mammalian counterparts SGK and Akt, Ypk1 and Ypk2 lack an identifiable lipid-targeting motif; therefore, how these proteins are recruited to the PM has remained elusive. To explore Ypk1/2 function, we constructed ATP analog-sensitive alleles of both kinases and monitored global changes in gene expression following their inhibition, where we observed increased expression of stress-responsive target genes controlled by Ca 2+-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. TORC2 has been shown previously to negatively regulate calcineurin in part by phosphorylating two related proteins, Slm1 and Slm2, which associate with the PM via plextrin homology domains. We therefore investigated the relationship between Slm1 and Ypk1 and discovered that these proteins interact physically and that Slm1 recruits Ypk1 to the PM for phosphorylation by TORC2. We observed further that these steps facilitate subsequent phosphorylation of Ypk1 by Pkh1/2. Remarkably, a requirement for Slm1, can be bypassed by fusing the plextrin homology domain of Slm1 alone onto Ypk1, demonstrating that the essential function of Slm1 is largely attributable to its role in Ypk1 activation. These findings both extend the scope of cellular processes regulated by Ypk1/2 to include negative regulation of calcineurin and broaden the repertoire of mechanisms for membrane recruitment and activation of a protein kinase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1536-1541
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume109
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 31 2012

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Phosphotransferases
Cell Membrane
Calcineurin
Phosphorylation
3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases
Proteins
Sphingolipids
Endocytosis
Protein Kinases
Actins
Adenosine Triphosphate
Yeasts
Alleles
Lipids
Gene Expression
Membranes
TOR complex 2
Genes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Plasma membrane recruitment and activation of the AGC kinase Ypk1 is mediated by target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) and its effector proteins Slm1 and Slm2. / Niles, Brad J.; Mogri, Huzefa; Hill, Andrew; Vlahakis, Ariadne; Powers, Ted.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 109, No. 5, 31.01.2012, p. 1536-1541.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The yeast AGC kinase orthologs Ypk1 and Ypk2 control several important cellular processes, including actin polarization, endocytosis, and sphingolipid metabolism. Activation of Ypk1/2 requires phosphorylation by kinases localized at the plasma membrane (PM), including the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 orthologs Pkh1/Pkh2 and the target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2). Unlike their mammalian counterparts SGK and Akt, Ypk1 and Ypk2 lack an identifiable lipid-targeting motif; therefore, how these proteins are recruited to the PM has remained elusive. To explore Ypk1/2 function, we constructed ATP analog-sensitive alleles of both kinases and monitored global changes in gene expression following their inhibition, where we observed increased expression of stress-responsive target genes controlled by Ca 2+-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. TORC2 has been shown previously to negatively regulate calcineurin in part by phosphorylating two related proteins, Slm1 and Slm2, which associate with the PM via plextrin homology domains. We therefore investigated the relationship between Slm1 and Ypk1 and discovered that these proteins interact physically and that Slm1 recruits Ypk1 to the PM for phosphorylation by TORC2. We observed further that these steps facilitate subsequent phosphorylation of Ypk1 by Pkh1/2. Remarkably, a requirement for Slm1, can be bypassed by fusing the plextrin homology domain of Slm1 alone onto Ypk1, demonstrating that the essential function of Slm1 is largely attributable to its role in Ypk1 activation. These findings both extend the scope of cellular processes regulated by Ypk1/2 to include negative regulation of calcineurin and broaden the repertoire of mechanisms for membrane recruitment and activation of a protein kinase.",
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