Photographic candling analysis of the embryonic development of orange-winged amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica)

Mary E. Delany, Lisa A Tell, James R. Millam, Don Preisler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Candling is a simple, inexpensive, and noninvasive means of monitoring avian egg quality and embryonic development before and during the incubation period. Good candling technique, coupled with knowledge of normal and abnormal features of avian eggs and embryos, can provide important information on the nutritional, genetic, and reproductive status of breeding birds, as well as information on the developmental progress and success of individual embryos. White-light candling is increasingly used by aviculturists, exotic bird breeders, and avian veterinarians for examining eggs of altricial species such as parrots; however, few training aids are available for acquiring candling skills. This project was undertaken to provide high-quality photographic views of candled eggs of orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica) during artificial incubation and to interpret them in terms of the underlying anatomy and physiology of the egg and developing embryo. We provide photographs of candled eggs with descriptive interpretations chronicling the normal developmental profile for days 1 through 17, as well as infertile or clear and damaged-shell views and early-stage embryonic mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)116-123
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1999


  • Amazon parrot
  • Amazona amazonica
  • Bird
  • Egg candling
  • Embryonic development
  • Incubation
  • Photographs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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