Photodynamic therapy in the canine prostate using motexafin lutetium

R. A. Hsi, Amy Kapatkin, J. Strandberg, T. Zhu, T. Vulcan, M. Solonenko, C. Rodriguez, J. Chang, M. Saunders, N. Mason, S. Hahn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


Our purpose was to determine the feasibility of comprehensive treatment of the canine prostate with photodynamic therapy (PDT) using motexafin lutetium (Lu-Tex) and to evaluate the toxicity and tissue effects associated with this treatment. Twenty-five adult male beagles with normal prostate glands were given an i.v. injection of the second-generation photosensitizer Lu-Tex (2-6 mg/kg). An additional two dogs were used as controls and did not receive any photosensitizing drug. All 27 dogs underwent laparotomy to expose the prostate. Three hours postinjection, a total dose of 75-150 J/cm of 732 nm laser light was delivered interstitially and/or transurethrally to the prostate via cylindrical diffusing fibers. Dogs were euthanized between 2 days and 3 months after PDT. All subjects were monitored for clinical evidence of toxicity. Specimens were examined macroscopically and microscopically to characterize the tissue reaction and assess extent of tissue effect as a result of treatment. Interstitial and/or transurethral PDT were successfully delivered in all dogs with no perioperative complications. No clinical evidence of acute urinary obstruction or rectal bleeding was noted. At all dose levels, macroscopic and microscopic evaluation revealed a prostatic tissue reaction characterized initially (within 48 h) by inflammation and necrosis followed by fibrosis and glandular epithelial atrophy. Comprehensive treatment of the entire prostate could be achieved using the interstitial alone approach or combined transurethral and interstitial approach. The transurethral alone approach did not result in complete coverage of the prostate. Dogs receiving transurethral or combined interstitial and transurethral treatment developed erythema and urethral epithelial disruption at all dose levels. Those receiving combined treatment at the highest dose level (LuTex 6 mg/kg, 150 J/cm light) developed urethral fistulae and peritonitis. Dogs treated with the interstitial alone approach were found to have the least amount of urethral damage. Comprehensive treatment of the canine prostate with LuTex PDT is feasible using an interstitial alone or combined interstitial and transurethral approach. The interstitial alone technique results in the least amount of toxicity. The prostatic tissue reaction to treatment is characterized by initial inflammation and necrosis followed by fibrosis and glandular epithelial atrophy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)651-660
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology


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