Photodynamic inactivation of an RNA enveloped virus in goat colostrum

K. E. Washburn, R. N. Streeter, J. T. Saliki, Terry W Lehenbauer, M. E. Prado

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The primary objective of this study was to determine if a RNA enveloped virus can be inactivated in goat colostrum using methylene blue (MB) and 1 h of illumination (photodynamic inactivation (PI)). The effects of illumination on the virucidal properties of MB were studied in translucent media as well as colostrum. Concentrations of MB evaluated were 10, 1.0, 0.1 and 0.01 μM. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was used as a model for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). Virus, immunoglobulin, bacterial and coliform levels were determined before and after treatments. In transparent media, concentrations of MB >0.1 μM inactivated virus regardless of time, with or without light exposure. Sixty minutes of light treatment significantly reduced viral levels in samples containing 0.01 μM MB as compared to dark treatment. In colostrum, light treatment significantly inactivated virus in samples containing 1.0 and 10 μM MB. Concentrations of immunoglobulin were not adversely affected, and total bacterial and coliform counts increased. We concluded that PI of a RNA enveloped virus appears to be achievable in goat colostrum without lowering immunoglobulin concentrations, or creating a hazardous degree of bacterial and coliform proliferation.The clinical relevance of this experiment is that PI has the potential to inactivate CAEV in goat colostrum, thus providing the goat industry an alternative to heat treatment of colostrum. However, further refinement of this technique is warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-37
Number of pages7
JournalSmall Ruminant Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Colostrum
  • Goat
  • Photodynamic inactivation
  • Virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)


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