Phosphoaspirin (MDC-43), a novel benzyl ester of aspirin, inhibits the growth of human cancer cell lines more potently than aspirin: A redox-dependent effect

Wenping Zhao, Gerardo Mackenzie, Onika T. Murray, Zhiquan Zhang, Basil Rigas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aspirin is chemopreventive against colon and probably other cancers, but this effect is relatively weak and its chronic administration to humans is associated with significant side effects. Because of these limitations, extensive effort has been exerted to improve the pharmacological properties of aspirin. We have determined the anticancer activity and mechanisms of action of the novel para positional isomer of phosphoaspirin [P-ASA; MDC-43; 4-((diethoxyphosphoryloxy)methyl)phenyl 2-acetoxybenzoate]. P-ASA inhibited the growth of 10 human cancer cell lines originating from colon, lung, liver, pancreas and breast, at least 18- to 144-fold more potently than conventional aspirin. P-ASA achieved this effect by modulating cell kinetics; compared with controls, P-ASA reduced cell proliferation by up to 68%, increased apoptosis 5.5-fold and blocked cell cycle progression in the G2/M phase. P-ASA increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), depleted glutathione levels and modulated cell signaling predominantly through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase), cyclooxygenase (COX) and nuclear factor-kappa B pathways. P-ASA targeted the mitochondria, increasing mitochondrial superoxide anion levels; this effect on ROS led to collapsed mitochondrial membrane potential and triggered the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine abrogated the cell growth inhibitory and signaling effects of P-ASA, underscoring the centrality of ROS in its mechanism of action. Our results, establishing P-ASA as a potent inhibitor of the growth of several human cancer cell lines, suggest that it may possess broad anticancer properties. We conclude that the novel P-ASA is a promising anticancer agent, which merits further evaluation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)512-519
Number of pages8
JournalCarcinogenesis
Volume30
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 20 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Aspirin
Oxidation-Reduction
Reactive Oxygen Species
Esters
Cell Line
Colon
Growth
Neoplasms
Growth Inhibitors
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
NF-kappa B
Mitochondrial Membrane Potential
G2 Phase
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
Superoxides
Cell Division
Antineoplastic Agents
Glutathione
Cysteine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Phosphoaspirin (MDC-43), a novel benzyl ester of aspirin, inhibits the growth of human cancer cell lines more potently than aspirin : A redox-dependent effect. / Zhao, Wenping; Mackenzie, Gerardo; Murray, Onika T.; Zhang, Zhiquan; Rigas, Basil.

In: Carcinogenesis, Vol. 30, No. 3, 20.03.2009, p. 512-519.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Aspirin is chemopreventive against colon and probably other cancers, but this effect is relatively weak and its chronic administration to humans is associated with significant side effects. Because of these limitations, extensive effort has been exerted to improve the pharmacological properties of aspirin. We have determined the anticancer activity and mechanisms of action of the novel para positional isomer of phosphoaspirin [P-ASA; MDC-43; 4-((diethoxyphosphoryloxy)methyl)phenyl 2-acetoxybenzoate]. P-ASA inhibited the growth of 10 human cancer cell lines originating from colon, lung, liver, pancreas and breast, at least 18- to 144-fold more potently than conventional aspirin. P-ASA achieved this effect by modulating cell kinetics; compared with controls, P-ASA reduced cell proliferation by up to 68{\%}, increased apoptosis 5.5-fold and blocked cell cycle progression in the G2/M phase. P-ASA increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), depleted glutathione levels and modulated cell signaling predominantly through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase), cyclooxygenase (COX) and nuclear factor-kappa B pathways. P-ASA targeted the mitochondria, increasing mitochondrial superoxide anion levels; this effect on ROS led to collapsed mitochondrial membrane potential and triggered the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine abrogated the cell growth inhibitory and signaling effects of P-ASA, underscoring the centrality of ROS in its mechanism of action. Our results, establishing P-ASA as a potent inhibitor of the growth of several human cancer cell lines, suggest that it may possess broad anticancer properties. We conclude that the novel P-ASA is a promising anticancer agent, which merits further evaluation.",
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