PhIP metabolites in human urine after consumption of well-cooked chicken

K. S. Kulp, M. G. Knize, N. D. Fowler, C. P. Salmon, J. S. Felton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


We devised an assay to quantify the metabolites of 2-amino-1-methyl-6- phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in human urine following a single exposure to well-cooked meat. Our method uses LC/MS/MS to detect four metabolites and four deuterated internal standard peaks in a single chromatographic run. N 2-OH-PhIP-N2-glucuronide was the most abundant urinary metabolite excreted by the 12 individuals who participated in our study. N 2-PhIP glucuronide was the second most abundant metabolite for 8 of the 12 volunteers. The stability of PhIP metabolism over time was studied in three of the volunteers who repeated the assay eight times over a 2.5 year-period. PhIP metabolite excretion varied in each subject over time, although the rate of excretion was more constant. Our results suggest that quantifying PhIP metabolites should make future studies of individual susceptibility and dietary interventions possible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)143-153
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 25 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine
  • Food analysis
  • Heterocyclic aromatic amine
  • Metabolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry


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