Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in the biology of ovarian cancer (OC). Inhibitors of VEGF suppress tumor growth in OC models. Metronomic chemotherapy, defined as frequent administration of low doses of cytotoxic chemotherapy, suppresses tumor growth, possibly by inhibiting angiogenesis. A phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the antitumor activity and adverse effects of bevacizumab and metronomic oral cyclophosphamide in women with recurrent OC. Patients and Methods: Patients with measurable disease and prior treatment with a platinum-containing regimen were eligible. Up to two different regimens for recurrent disease were allowed. Treatment consisted of bevacizumab 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks and oral cyclophosphamide 50 mg/d. The primary end point was progression-free survival at 6 months. Plasma levels of VEGF, E-selectin, and thrombospondin-1 were obtained serially. Results: Seventy patients were enrolled. The probability of being alive and progression free at 6 months was 56% (± 6% SE). A partial response was achieved in 17 patients (24%). Median time to progression and survival were 7.2 and 16.9 months, respectively. The most common serious toxicities were hypertension, fatigue, and pain. Bevacizumab-related toxicities included four episodes of gastrointestinal perforation or fistula, two episodes each of CNS ischemia and pulmonary hypertension, and one episode each of gastrointestinal bleeding and wound healing complication. There were three treatment-related deaths. Levels of VEGF, E-selectin, and thrombospondin-1 were not associated with clinical outcome. Conclusion: The combination of bevacizumab and metronomic cyclophosphamide is active in recurrent OC. Further study of this combination is warranted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research