Niclosamide has preclinical activity against a wide range of cancers. In prostate cancer, it inhibits androgen receptor variant 7 and synergizes with abiraterone. The approved niclosamide formulation has poor oral bioavailability. The primary objective of this phase Ib trial was to identify a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of a novel reformulated orally-bioavailable niclosamide/PDMX1001 in combination with abiraterone and prednisone in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Eligible patients had progressing CRPC, adequate end-organ function, and no prior treatment with abiraterone or ketoconazole. Patients were treated with escalating doses of niclosamide/PDMX1001 and standard doses of abiraterone and prednisone. Peak and trough niclosamide plasma levels were measured. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.0 and Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 criteria were used to evaluate toxicities and responses. Nine patients with metastatic CRPC were accrued, with no dose-limiting toxicities observed at all dose levels. The recommended Phase II dose of niclosamide/PDMX1001 was 1200 mg orally (PO) three times daily plus abiraterone 1000 mg PO once daily and prednisone 5 mg PO twice daily. Trough and peak niclosamide concentrations exceeded the therapeutic threshold of > 0.2 µM. The combination was well tolerated with most frequent adverse effects of diarrhea. Five out of eight evaluable patients achieved a PSA response; two achieved undetectable PSA and radiographic response. A novel niclosamide/PDMX1001 reformulation achieved targeted plasma levels when combined with abiraterone and prednisone, and was well tolerated. Further study of niclosamide/PDMX1001 with this combination is warranted.
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