Phase I pharmacokinetic study of single agent trametinib in patients with advanced cancer and hepatic dysfunction

Pei Jye Voon, Eric X. Chen, Helen X. Chen, Albert C. Lockhart, Solmaz Sahebjam, Karen Kelly, Ulka N. Vaishampayan, Vivek Subbiah, Albiruni R. Razak, Daniel J. Renouf, Sebastien J. Hotte, Arti Singh, Philippe L. Bedard, Aaron R. Hansen, S. Percy Ivy, Lisa Wang, Lee Anne Stayner, Lillian L. Siu, Anna Spreafico

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Trametinib is an oral MEK 1/2 inhibitor, with a single agent recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of 2 mg daily (QD). This study was designed to evaluate RP2D, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of trametinib in patients with advanced solid tumors who had various degrees of hepatic dysfunction (HD). Methods: Advanced cancer patients were stratified into 4 HD groups based on Organ Dysfunction Working Group hepatic function stratification criteria: normal (Norm), mild (Mild), moderate (Mod), severe (Sev). Dose escalation was based on “3 + 3” design within each HD group. PK samples were collected at cycle 1 days 15-16. Results: Forty-six patients were enrolled with 44 evaluable for safety [Norm=17, Mild=7, Mod (1.5 mg)=4, Mod (2 mg)=5, Sev (1 mg)=9, Sev (1.5 mg)=2] and 22 for PK analysis. Treatment related adverse events were consistent with prior trametinib studies. No treatment related deaths occurred. Dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) were evaluable in 15 patients (Mild=6, Mod (1.5 mg)=3, Mod (2 mg)=2, Sev (1 mg)=3 and Sev (1.5 mg)=1). One DLT (grade 3 acneiform rash) was observed in a Sev patient (1.5 mg). Dose interruptions or reductions due to treatment related adverse events occurred in 15 patients (34%) [Norm=9, 53%; Mild=2, 29%; Mod (1.5 mg)=1, 33%; Mod (2 mg)=2, 33%; Sev (1 mg)=1, 11%; Sev (1.5 mg)=1; 50%]. There were no significant differences across HD groups for all PK parameters when trametinib was normalized to 2 mg. However, only limited PK data were available for the Mod (n = 3) and Sev (n = 3) groups compared to Norm (n = 10) and Mild (n = 6) groups. Trametinib is heavily protein bound, with no correlation between serum albumin level and unbound trametinib fraction (p = 0.26). Conclusions: RP2D for trametinib in Mild HD patients is 2 mg QD. There are insufficient number of evaluable patients due to difficulty of patient accrual to declare RP2D and MTD for Mod and Sev HD groups. DLTs were not observed in the highest dose cohorts that reached three evaluable patients – 1.5 mg QD in Mod group, and 1 mg QD in Sev group. Trial registration: This study was registered in the website (NCT 02070549) on February 25, 2014.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number51
JournalJournal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • Dose escalation
  • Hepatic dysfunction
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Phase I trial
  • Trametinib

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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