Uproleselan (GMI-1271) is a novel E-selectin antagonist that disrupts cell survival pathways, enhances chemotherapy response, improves survival in mouse xenograft and syngeneic models, and decreases chemotherapy toxicity in vivo. A phase 1/2 study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and antileukemic activity of uproleselan (5-20 mg/kg) with MEC (mitoxantrone, etoposide, and cytarabine) among patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Among the first 19 patients, no dose-limiting toxicities were observed. The recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) was 10 mg/kg twice daily. An additional 47 patients with R/R AML were treated with uproleselan at the RP2D plus MEC. At the RP2D, the remission rate (complete response [CR]/CR with incomplete count recovery [CRi]) was 41% (CR, 35%), and the median overall survival (OS) was 8.8 months. In a separate cohort, 25 newly diagnosed patients age ≥60 years received uproleselan at the RP2D plus cytarabine and idarubicin (7 + 3). In these frontline patients, the CR/CRi rate was 72% (CR, 52%), and the median OS was 12.6 months. The addition of uproleselan was associated with low rates of oral mucositis. E-selectin ligand expression on leukemic blasts was higher in patients with relapsed vs primary refractory AML and in newly diagnosed older patients with high-risk cytogenetics and secondary AML. In the R/R cohort, E-selectin expression >10% was associated with a higher response rate and improved survival. The addition of uproleselan to chemotherapy was well tolerated, with high remission rates, low induction mortality, and low rates of mucositis, providing a strong rationale for phase 3 randomized confirmatory studies. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02306291.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology