Pharmacology of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analog exenatide extended-release in healthy cats

A. J. Rudinsky, C. A. Adin, S. Borin-Crivellenti, P. Rajala-Schultz, M. J. Hall, Chen Gilor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Exenatide extended-release (ER) is a microencapsulated formulation of the glucagon-like peptide 1-receptor agonist exenatide. It has a protracted pharmacokinetic profile that allows a once-weekly injection with comparable efficacy to insulin with an improved safety profile in type II diabetic people. Here, we studied the pharmacology of exenatide ER in 6 healthy cats. A single subcutaneous injection of exenatide ER (0.13mg/kg) was administered on day 0. Exenatide concentrations were measured for 12wk. A hyperglycemic clamp (target = 225mg/dL) was performed on days -7 (clamp I) and 21 (clamp II) with measurements of insulin and glucagon concentrations. Glucose tolerance was defined as the amount of glucose required to maintain hyperglycemia during the clamp. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed on weeks 0, 2, and 6 after injection. Plasma concentrations of exenatide peaked at 1h and 4wk after injection. Comparing clamp I with clamp II, fasting blood glucose decreased (mean ± standard deviation = -11 ± 8mg/dL, P = 0.02), glucose tolerance improved (median [range] +33% [4%-138%], P = 0.04), insulin concentrations increased (+36.5% [-9.9% to 274.1%], P = 0.02), and glucagon concentrations decreased (-4.7% [0%-12.1%], P = 0.005). Compared with preinjection values on continuous glucose monitoring, glucose concentrations decreased and the frequency of readings <50mg/dL increased at 2 and 6wk after injection of exenatide ER. This did not correspond to clinical hypoglycemia. No other side effects were observed throughout the study. Exenatide ER was safe and effective in improving glucose tolerance 3wk after a single injection. Further evaluation is needed to determine its safety, efficacy, and duration of action in diabetic cats.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)78-85
Number of pages8
JournalDomestic Animal Endocrinology
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Diabetes
  • Exenatide
  • Feline
  • Glucagon
  • Incretin
  • Insulin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Endocrinology
  • Food Animals
  • Medicine(all)


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