Pharmacological management options to prevent and reduce ischemic hemorrhagic transformation

Wing Mann Ho, Cesar Reis, Onat Akyol, Gokce Yilmaz Akyol, Richard Applegate, Gary Stier, Robert Martin, John H. Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a common and natural complication after acute ischemic stroke. The only FDA-approved treatment so far for acute ischemic stroke is rapid reperfusion with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). Although it has been shown to exaggerate the risk and severity of HT and to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Objective: The aim of this review is to discuss the multifactorial pathophysiology of hemorrhagic transformation, promising interventional targets, and pharmacological treatment options. Results and Conclusion: Understanding HT is essential to restore cerebral blood flow to ischemic brain by reperfusion therapy without causing this complication and additional brain injury. Therefore methods for the prevention and treatment of HT are needed. Although experimental studies showed promising results, clinical translation remains unsatisfactory to date.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1441-1459
Number of pages19
JournalCurrent Drug Targets
Issue number12
StatePublished - Sep 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Cerebral ischemia
  • Conversion
  • Hemorrhagic transformation
  • Prevention
  • Stroke
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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